Textbook Notes (368,214)
Canada (161,710)
Psychology (1,957)
PS268 (56)
Chapter 9

Drugs and Behaviour - Chapter 9

7 Pages
Unlock Document

Bruce Mc Kay

Drugs and Behaviour – Chapter 9  Alcoholic Beverages o Fermentation and fermentation products  Fermentation forms basis for all alcoholic beverages  Production of alcohol from sugars through actions of yeast  Most fruits and grains can be used to produce alcoholic beverages  Grains contain starch and must be turned into sugar before it can ferment (malt) o Malt – dried, sprouted barely o Distilled products  Distillation is necessary to reach alcohol concentration above15%  Process where alcohol is heated and vapours are collected and condensed into liquid again o Condensed liquid has higher concentration of alcohol  Alcohol in N.A is indicated by proof  Proof- measure of alcohol content, twice the alcohol percentage per volume 40% alcohol = 80 proof o Beer  Made by adding barley malt to other cereal grains  Solids are filtered out before yeast is added to start fermentation  Most of the beer sold in NA are lagers  To brew lager, bottom settling yeast is used, must age, colder temperatures  Ales require top fermenting yeast, warmer temps, and more malt/hops  Malt liquour brewed like lager but aged longer  Domestically produced beer accounts for 88% of Canadian beer sales o Wine  One of the oldest drinks in human history  Two basic types of NA wines  Generics o Blended wines, made from available grapes o Made to taste like traditional European wines  Varietals o Made with one variety of grape (>51%)  Champagnes are created by adding a small of sugar and producing natural carbonation  Fortified wines have content near 20% o Distilled spirits  Brandy – distilled wine  Whiskey – distilled barley malt  Gin was one of the first beverages to be made from straight grain neutrals  Proof at which distillation is carried out influences taste and characteristics of the liquour  Congeners form when alcohol is formed  Congeners – other alcohols and oils contained in alcoholic beverages o Can be deadly/toxic  Canadian and scotch whiskies tend to be blended whiskies and lighter than American whiskies  Alcohol use and “the alcohol problem” o Late 1700s  More alcohol consumption than water (due to contamination)  Placed blame on sinner, not alcohol Drugs and Behaviour – Chapter 9 o 18 century  Alcohol as cause of problems  Demonization of alcohol  View the thing as bad and seek to eliminate it o Temperance movement in the Americas  Benjamin Rush  Noticed relationship between heavy drinking and jaundice (liver failure), madness and seizures  Hard liquour damaged drinkers’ morality, leading to antisocial, immoral and criminal behaviours o Rush believed there was a direct toxic action on part of brain responsible for morality  Introduced concept of addiction o Referred to as a disease, and recommended total abstinence  Temperance movement  Everyone should avoid distilled spirits because they could be toxic and should consume alcoholic beverages in moderation  Temperance societies were started, “took pledge” to be temperate  Alcohol-related problems did not disappear  Advocated for total abstinence o Prohibition  First period 1851  Thought that prohibition was going to be widely accepted and little enforcement would be necessary  People were doing it illegally  Organized crimes more organized and more profitable  Unenforceable, so it was repealed  Reduced availability, use and related problems, but it created other problems o Post-prohibition regulation of alcohol  Control was returned to provinces and states  Age requirement was set  Who drinks? And Why? o Cultural influences on drinking  Alcohol use in different cultures vary  Irish-Americans have higher rates of alcohol-related problems  Irish forbid children from drinking until they become of age  Italian families give children wine from early age  French primary drink wine and during meals  Consume more alcohol than any other nation, highest dependence rates/liver failures o Prevalence and patterns of alcohol use in Canada  19.4$ worth of alcohol sold in 2009  Canadians brought 2.3 billion litres of beer o Regional differences in alcohol use in Canada  One theory about heavy drinking proposes populations of people who experience a great deal of social stress and tension and who approve of the use of alcohol to release tension and stress drink more and have more drinking problems  Stress index and drinking norms are correlated with indicators of heaving drinking and alcohol related arrests o Gender differences Drugs and Behaviour – Chapter 9  Males more likely to drink alcohol (~80% vs 73%)  Males report heavy frequent drinking (8% vs 2%)  Females report more abstaining (13.9% vs 5.1%) o Drinking among postsecondary students  University students more likely to engage in heavy frequent drinking and light frequent drinking compared to other Canadian youth  Alcohol pharmacology o Absorption  Some absorbed from stomach, but small intestine absorbs most of it  Alcohol taken with food takes longer for body to absorb, same with water  Carbonated liquids speed it up o Distribution  Blood-alcohol concentration (BAC) and uptake is relatively simple  During alcohol consumption, alcohol distributes throughout body fluids  Does not distribute into fatty tissues  Females tend to have higher BAC level than males because of higher fat deposits  Alcohol is removed by liver at 7-9 grams per hour o Metabolism  Once absorbed, will not leave body until it is metabolized  90% happens in liver  During metabolization, acetaldehyde is created, and is quite toxic in high doses  Enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase  36% of east Asians have a genetic deficiency in breaking down alcohol  Higher risk of esophageal cancer because of this deficiency o Mechanisms of action  Like any other general anaesthetic  Depresses the CNS  Some major disadvantages  Alcohol metabolizes slowly o Gives alcohol a long duration of action that cannot be controlled  Dose effective in surgical anaesthesia is not much lower than the dose that causes respiratory arrest and death  Alcohol makes blood clot slower  Alcohol reduces CNS neuronal activity through combination of effects  Increase in inhibitory action of GABA and decrease in excitatory action of glutamate  Certain subtypes of GABA receptors are sensitive to alcohol  Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain  Shown to diminish excitatory actions of glutamate by inhibiting ability to open cation channel associated with glutamate receptors  No matter what neurotransmitter, receptor or transporter is examined, alcohol alters its function in some way o Behavioural Effects  At lowest effective BAC levels, complex, abstract and poorly learned behaviours are disrupted  As doses increases, better learned/simpler behaviours are affected, inhibitions can be reduced  Increased behavioural output is usually attributed to decreased inhibition of behaviour  If alcohol intake is just right, most people experience euphoria Drugs and Behaviour – Chapter 9  We become witty, clever and quite sophisticated or at least seems we are  Reduction in anxieties  Effects are based on BAC level  Due to long history with alcohol, we have expectations on how alcohol should affect us o Time-out and Alcohol Myopia  Many effects are based on what they expect to happen
More Less

Related notes for PS268

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.