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Canada (161,710)
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PS268 (56)
Chapter 9

Drugs and Behaviour - Chapter 9

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Department
Psychology
Course
PS268
Professor
Bruce Mc Kay
Semester
Winter

Description
Drugs and Behaviour – Chapter 9  Alcoholic Beverages o Fermentation and fermentation products  Fermentation forms basis for all alcoholic beverages  Production of alcohol from sugars through actions of yeast  Most fruits and grains can be used to produce alcoholic beverages  Grains contain starch and must be turned into sugar before it can ferment (malt) o Malt – dried, sprouted barely o Distilled products  Distillation is necessary to reach alcohol concentration above15%  Process where alcohol is heated and vapours are collected and condensed into liquid again o Condensed liquid has higher concentration of alcohol  Alcohol in N.A is indicated by proof  Proof- measure of alcohol content, twice the alcohol percentage per volume 40% alcohol = 80 proof o Beer  Made by adding barley malt to other cereal grains  Solids are filtered out before yeast is added to start fermentation  Most of the beer sold in NA are lagers  To brew lager, bottom settling yeast is used, must age, colder temperatures  Ales require top fermenting yeast, warmer temps, and more malt/hops  Malt liquour brewed like lager but aged longer  Domestically produced beer accounts for 88% of Canadian beer sales o Wine  One of the oldest drinks in human history  Two basic types of NA wines  Generics o Blended wines, made from available grapes o Made to taste like traditional European wines  Varietals o Made with one variety of grape (>51%)  Champagnes are created by adding a small of sugar and producing natural carbonation  Fortified wines have content near 20% o Distilled spirits  Brandy – distilled wine  Whiskey – distilled barley malt  Gin was one of the first beverages to be made from straight grain neutrals  Proof at which distillation is carried out influences taste and characteristics of the liquour  Congeners form when alcohol is formed  Congeners – other alcohols and oils contained in alcoholic beverages o Can be deadly/toxic  Canadian and scotch whiskies tend to be blended whiskies and lighter than American whiskies  Alcohol use and “the alcohol problem” o Late 1700s  More alcohol consumption than water (due to contamination)  Placed blame on sinner, not alcohol Drugs and Behaviour – Chapter 9 o 18 century  Alcohol as cause of problems  Demonization of alcohol  View the thing as bad and seek to eliminate it o Temperance movement in the Americas  Benjamin Rush  Noticed relationship between heavy drinking and jaundice (liver failure), madness and seizures  Hard liquour damaged drinkers’ morality, leading to antisocial, immoral and criminal behaviours o Rush believed there was a direct toxic action on part of brain responsible for morality  Introduced concept of addiction o Referred to as a disease, and recommended total abstinence  Temperance movement  Everyone should avoid distilled spirits because they could be toxic and should consume alcoholic beverages in moderation  Temperance societies were started, “took pledge” to be temperate  Alcohol-related problems did not disappear  Advocated for total abstinence o Prohibition  First period 1851  Thought that prohibition was going to be widely accepted and little enforcement would be necessary  People were doing it illegally  Organized crimes more organized and more profitable  Unenforceable, so it was repealed  Reduced availability, use and related problems, but it created other problems o Post-prohibition regulation of alcohol  Control was returned to provinces and states  Age requirement was set  Who drinks? And Why? o Cultural influences on drinking  Alcohol use in different cultures vary  Irish-Americans have higher rates of alcohol-related problems  Irish forbid children from drinking until they become of age  Italian families give children wine from early age  French primary drink wine and during meals  Consume more alcohol than any other nation, highest dependence rates/liver failures o Prevalence and patterns of alcohol use in Canada  19.4$ worth of alcohol sold in 2009  Canadians brought 2.3 billion litres of beer o Regional differences in alcohol use in Canada  One theory about heavy drinking proposes populations of people who experience a great deal of social stress and tension and who approve of the use of alcohol to release tension and stress drink more and have more drinking problems  Stress index and drinking norms are correlated with indicators of heaving drinking and alcohol related arrests o Gender differences Drugs and Behaviour – Chapter 9  Males more likely to drink alcohol (~80% vs 73%)  Males report heavy frequent drinking (8% vs 2%)  Females report more abstaining (13.9% vs 5.1%) o Drinking among postsecondary students  University students more likely to engage in heavy frequent drinking and light frequent drinking compared to other Canadian youth  Alcohol pharmacology o Absorption  Some absorbed from stomach, but small intestine absorbs most of it  Alcohol taken with food takes longer for body to absorb, same with water  Carbonated liquids speed it up o Distribution  Blood-alcohol concentration (BAC) and uptake is relatively simple  During alcohol consumption, alcohol distributes throughout body fluids  Does not distribute into fatty tissues  Females tend to have higher BAC level than males because of higher fat deposits  Alcohol is removed by liver at 7-9 grams per hour o Metabolism  Once absorbed, will not leave body until it is metabolized  90% happens in liver  During metabolization, acetaldehyde is created, and is quite toxic in high doses  Enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase  36% of east Asians have a genetic deficiency in breaking down alcohol  Higher risk of esophageal cancer because of this deficiency o Mechanisms of action  Like any other general anaesthetic  Depresses the CNS  Some major disadvantages  Alcohol metabolizes slowly o Gives alcohol a long duration of action that cannot be controlled  Dose effective in surgical anaesthesia is not much lower than the dose that causes respiratory arrest and death  Alcohol makes blood clot slower  Alcohol reduces CNS neuronal activity through combination of effects  Increase in inhibitory action of GABA and decrease in excitatory action of glutamate  Certain subtypes of GABA receptors are sensitive to alcohol  Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain  Shown to diminish excitatory actions of glutamate by inhibiting ability to open cation channel associated with glutamate receptors  No matter what neurotransmitter, receptor or transporter is examined, alcohol alters its function in some way o Behavioural Effects  At lowest effective BAC levels, complex, abstract and poorly learned behaviours are disrupted  As doses increases, better learned/simpler behaviours are affected, inhibitions can be reduced  Increased behavioural output is usually attributed to decreased inhibition of behaviour  If alcohol intake is just right, most people experience euphoria Drugs and Behaviour – Chapter 9  We become witty, clever and quite sophisticated or at least seems we are  Reduction in anxieties  Effects are based on BAC level  Due to long history with alcohol, we have expectations on how alcohol should affect us o Time-out and Alcohol Myopia  Many effects are based on what they expect to happen
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