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PS268 (56)
Chapter 3

Drugs and Behaviour - Chapter 3

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Department
Psychology
Course
PS268
Professor
Bruce Mc Kay
Semester
Winter

Description
Drugs and Behaviour – Chapter 3  History of drug regulations o Up until 1908, no regulations o Creation of drug regulations not based on safety of population or dangers of drugs, but more with public fear and political and momentary agendas o Two factors contributed to escalation of antidrug policies and public’s fear of Chinese immigrants  Association between elements of the euro-Canadian society and Chinese immigrants  Mixing of races a bad thing  Chinese immigrants perceived as economic threat to Euro-Canadians o Opium act of 1908  Mackenzie King shocked by extent of opium trade in British Columbia  Four main concerns o Opium smoking becoming more popular among white people o Chinese making vast profits in trade o Opium trade in violation of provincial pharmacy legislation o Canada had to set an example for an international campaign if it doesn’t work  Made it indictable to import, manufacture, sell or posses to sell  Not simple possession or use  Created black market for opium  1911 opium and drug act began enforcement of Canadian drug policy  Harsh antidrug legislation  Habitual drug use associated mostly with Chinese immigrants, many Canadians felt they were immune from effects of drug legislations o Patent medicine act of 1909  Required documentation and approval of a small number of drugs formulated and issued by doctors  Prohibited use of cocaine in medicines and to label ingredients  Minister of health had authority to cancel or suspend licence for violations o Narcotic control act of 1961  During this period that idea of treating habitual drug users first became significant  Began to be perceived as a disease, not a crime  Criminalization of drugs in Canada made possible because of the strong belief that certain drugs had ability to enslave users  Social distance between drug users and mainstream society narrowed considerable due to large number of middle class youth using drugs without turning into dangerous lunatics  Difficult to maintain myths that it enslaves users o The Le Dain commission  Studied illicit drug issue in Canada  Produced four reports  Most significant recommendation was gradual withdrawal of illegal drug criminalization  Recommended greater leniency for crime of possession  Recommended possession of cannabis not be considered an offence  Policies did not change o The Canadian drug strategy  Ronald Reagan declared new war on drugs  Began new era of drug prohibition and law enforcement  Led to development of Canadian Drug Strategy 1 Drugs and Behaviour – Chapter 3 o Controlled drugs and substances act voted into law o Controlled drugs and substance act  Importation, production, distribution and possession of various drugs and substances governed primarily by provisions of the Controlled Drugs and Substances Act (CDSA)  CDSA prohibits importation, exportation, production, sale, provision and possession of a wide variety of controlled drugs and substances, except when permitted  Controlled drugs for medicine may be legally obtained with a prescription  Not all offences result in a criminal record on conviction  Summary convictions o Do not normally result in criminal record o Possession of 30 grams or less of cannabis or 1 gram or less of cannabis resin  Either o Simple possession of more than 30 grams or 1 gram of cannabis resin  Indictable offence o Trafficking or possession for purpose of trafficking cannabis  Sentencing  Considerable discretion in sentencing offenders under the CDSA  Takes many aggravating factors into play when sentencing o Selling drugs to children o Using or involving children o Selling drugs near schools or other places where youth frequent  Drug paraphernalia laws  Summary conviction offence to import, export, manufacture, promote or sell instruments or literature for illicit drug use  Only in Ontario  Sale of alcohol and tobacco  Subject to both federal and provincial or territorial legislation  Impaired driving  Criminal code of Canada contains offences related to drunk driving  Diversion to treatment  Some legislation allows for diversion from criminal justice system to treatment  Diversion to treatment also recognizes reality of overcrowded courts and limitations of enforcement  Many convictions of drunk drivers require them to attend substance abuse education or treatment programs  International conventions  Ratified number of international conventions to control drugs  Regulation of pharmaceuticals o Food and drugs act and regulations regulate safety, efficacy and quality of pharmaceutical drugs, vitamins, vaccines and medical devices sold in Canada o More than 22 000 pharmaceutical products and 40 000 medical devices available in Canada o Drug submission process  If results of clinical trial show that drug’s potential therapeutic value outweighs the risks, manufacturers may seek authorization to sell products by completing a “new drug submission” 2 Drugs and Beh
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