Textbook Notes (369,198)
Canada (162,457)
Psychology (1,978)
PS268 (56)
Chapter 15

Drugs and Behaviour - Chapter 15

7 Pages
176 Views

Department
Psychology
Course Code
PS268
Professor
Bruce Mc Kay

This preview shows pages 1 and half of page 2. Sign up to view the full 7 pages of the document.
Description
Drugs and Behaviour – Chapter 15  Cannabis, the plant o Marijuana preparation of leafy material from Cannabis plant o Strong evidence that there are three species of Cannabis  Cannabis sativa – originated in Asia, now grows worldwide, fibres used for hemp products  Cannabis indica – grown for psychoactive resins and cultivated in many areas  Cannabis ruderalis – grows primarily in Russia  Cannabis preparations o Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) active ingredient in cannabis, concentrated in the resin  Most resin in the flowering tops o Potency of cannabis preparation varies depending on part of plant used o Charas – most potent, contains pure resin carefully removed from surface of leaves and stems o Hashish – substance widely known around world in its purest form is pure resin  May be less pure depending on how its extracted o Ganja – second most potent, dried flowering tops of plants with pistillate flowers  Male plants removed from field before female plants can become pollinated  Increases potency of female plants and produces high-grade marijuana known as sinsemilla o Average content 7-12% o Bhang – weakest form, using remainder of plant after top is picked  Dried and ground into powder  Rare in NA  Contains <1% o Hash oil – plants boiled in alcohol, then liquid evaporated into thick dark substance  Varies in potency, can contain more than 50% THC  History o Early history  Earliest reference in 2737 BCE – Chinese emperor  Recommended it for some medical uses  1000 CE – spread to the Muslim world o Nineteenth century: romantic literature and the new science of psychology  Earliest poplar account of hashish use is in The count of Monte Cristo (1844)  Contains statements about characteristics of drug that still sound contemporary  1840s – artists and writers gathered to use drugs  Gautier wrote book describing activities o Best literary descriptions of hashish intoxication o History of cannabis policy in Canada  Canada followed stern prohibitionist line to control illicit drug use  Until late 1950, Canada’s illicit drug policy one of the most punitive drug control systems in the world  Drug addiction started being viewed as a disease instead of a crime, and doctors should have a say rather than just law enforcement  Criminalization of drugs was accepted because drugs were believed to have ability to control people  1960s-1970s – “Dope fiend” myth discredited because youth were using it and not turning into dope fiends  Laws were criticized for making criminals out of white middle-class youth  1969 – commission of inquiry into non medical use of drugs (le Dain Commission) studied illicit drug issues  Between 1969-1973 – produced four reports 1 Drugs and Behaviour – Chapter 15 o Main point raised was recommendation of gradual withdrawal of criminalization of illegal drugs o Greater leniency for crime of possession, abolishing imprisonment o Recommended possession of cannabis should not be considered an offence  May 27, 2002 – bill 38  Designed to decriminalize small amounts of cannabis o Possession  <15g – punishable with fine  15-30g – ticketed or arrested and charged at officer’s discretion o Planting  Up to 7 plants – summary offence  Cultivation in larger amounts more severe  Supply, distribution and trafficking of marijuana, hashish and hash oil o Marijuana supply distribution and trafficking in Canada  Cultivated both indoors and outdoors  Indoor production more common because greater control over growing environment yields larger crops  Higher THC levels  Increasingly sophisticated cultivation methods contributed to higher THC levels  2009 – report on the illicit drug situation in Canada (RCMP)  Amount of marijuana produced in Canada exceed domestic demand, resulting in organized crime groups, exporting to foreign markets  Canada source country for high-grade marijuana  Predominantly occurred in BC, Ontario and Quebec  Number of grow-ops increased in small, rural communities in prairie provinces  Asian organized crime continued to dominate indoor production – increased production and potency  Proceeds generated from this used to fund other criminal activities o Hashish and hash oil supply, distribution and trafficking in Canada  Hash and hash oil originally smuggled into Canada from south Asia, middle east, Africa, morocco, south Africa, Mozambique and Caribbean  Morocco reportedly largest supplier of hash to global market  Produced 877 metric tons of hash  2009 – Afghanistan cannabis survey  One of the top hash producers in world, 1500-3500 metric tons  Pakistan one of primary source/transit countries for has destined for Canada  Most of the hash products seized in 2009 either originated from Afghanistan or transited through South Africa  Jamaica for decades has been primary supplier of hash products to Canada  Prevalence rates of cannabis use o Canadian alcohol and drug use monitoring survey (CADUMS)  Designed to provide detailed national and provincial estimates of alcohol and drug-related behaviours and outcome  Prevalence rates of cannabis use higher in males than females  15-24 average age of initiation is 15.6 years old  Canadian addictions survey (CAS) compared to CADUMS showed decrease in cannabis use over five years by gender and within age categories o Worldwide use of cannabis  Most widely consumed illicit drug in the world  155-250 million people used illicit substances at least once in 2008 2 Drugs and Behaviour – Chapter 15  Cannabis users largest number of illicit drug users  Amphetamines second most common  Surveys done in households and schools may not be as accurate o Compassion clubs  In Canada, compassion clubs, cannabis clubs or buyers’ clubs, individuals can purchase variety of strains of cannabis and other cannabis products  Vary in size and structure  Self regulated, no federal standards under which they operate to produce and distribute marijuana  2010 – Marijuana medical access regulations (MMAR) regulated so that only individuals licensed to possess or produce are authorized  Purchasing from compassion clubs are subject to law enforcement measures  Pharmacology o Chemistry of cannabis plant quite complex  Isolation and extraction of THC still difficult o More than 400 chemicals in marijuana, 66 unique to cannabis plant (cannabinoids) o 1964 – THC isolated in 1964 and most pharmacologically active o Cannabinoid chemicals  THC to cannabis <=> nicotine to tobacco o Absorption, distribution and elimination  Smoked  THC rapidly absorbed into blood, distributed to brain then rest of body o Gone from brain within 30 minutes  Peak effects occur usually within 5-10 minutes  THC has half life of 19 hours, but metabolites (at least 45) have half-life of 50 hours  After one week, 25-30% of THC/metabolites still remain in body  Complete elimination might take 2-3 weeks  Orally  Slower, liver transforms THC  Peak effects at 90 minutes  High lipid solubility – selectively taken up and stored in fatty tissues to be released slowly  Excretion primarily through feces  Two implications o No easy way to monitor THC or metabolite levels and relate them to behavioural/physiological effects o Long-lasting, steady, low concentration of THC and metabolites on brain and other organs have effects not yet determined o Mechanism of action  Identifying and purifying THC helps scientists find effects on CNS  1988 – developed technique to identify and measure specific/selective binding sites for THC and related compounds  This research identified body’s natural marijuana-like substance  Anandamide  THC/cannabinoids bind to two receptors: CB1 and CB2  CB2 receptors found outside brain in immune cells, may play role in modulation of immune response  CB1 receptors found throughout body, primarily in brain  Much more abundant than receptors for morphine and heroin, suggesting potential actions of cannabinoids are widespread 3 Drugs and Behaviour – Chapter 15
More Less
Unlock Document

Only pages 1 and half of page 2 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit