Textbook Notes (363,236)
Canada (158,278)
Psychology (1,877)
PS268 (56)
Chapter 11

Drugs and Behaviour - Chapter 11

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Wilfrid Laurier University
Bruce Mc Kay

Drugs and Behaviour – Chapter 11 and Chapter 7 (154-157)  Caffeine : the world’s most common psycho-stimulant o Belongs to the methylxanthine (xanthine) chemical family o More people use caffeine than any other drug o Coffee  In Canada, 96 L/person in 1990 -> 106L/person in 2009  Coffee houses started appearing in 1650  Place to relax  Learn news  Seal bargains  Plot o Charles II outlawed them  1674 - Women argued against coffee use o Claimed made men less fruitful  Coffee drinking increased in English colonies  Coffee became the official drink of the USA  Coffee consumption continued to rise  1790 – commercial grounding began  Green beans can be stored indefinitely  Ground beans can only be stored for a short time  1900 – vacuum packing introduced  Coffee growing spread worldwide  Two species of coffee  Arabica o Milder flavour, more expensive  Robusta o Stronger, bitterer flavour, higher caffeine content  Early 1970s – decaffeinated coffee started showing up  Several ways to remove caffeine o Methylene chloride o Swiss water process o Tea  350 CE – First report of tea in Chinese manuscript  1559 – first European record of tea  1610 – Dutch delivered first tea to European continent  1600 – English East India Company was formed  Queen Elizabeth gave company monopoly  1669 – Britain banned Dutch tea imports  Britain became a nation of tea drinkers  December 16, 1773 - Boston Tea Party  342 chests of tea turned Boston Harbour into giant teapot  2008 Canada - 79.4L per capita consumption  Tea Plucking  4.5 kg of tea each day  Leave dried, rolled to crush, then left to ferment (oxidize) o Turns copper  Nonoxidized tea sold as green tea  Oxidized tea – black tea (98% of NA tea consumption)  Partially oxidized – oolong tea  Black tea contains higher concentration of caffeine than coffee beans  Typical cup of tea has less than typical cup of coffee Drugs and Behaviour – Chapter 11 and Chapter 7 (154-157)  40-60 mg of caffeine per cup  Theophylline  Effective at relaxing bronchial passages and asthma relief o Chocolate  Chocolatl  Flavoured with vanilla, thick like honey, and eaten with spoon  Chocolate introduced to Europe almost century before coffee and tea  Use spread slowly  Spanish kept chocolate preparation secret until early 17 century  17 century – chocolate drinking spread across Europe  1650s – chocolate houses opened in England  Large part of chocolate crop comes from Africa  1828 – grinding dried plant kernels results in chocolate liquor (baking chocolate)  1828 – removing 2/3 of fat from chocolate liquor : chocolate powder  1847 – first chocolate bars appeared – cocoa butter/sugar/chocolate powder  1876 – Swiss made milk chocolate  Canada – Milk chocolate must contain at least 12% milk solids  Theobromine – chocolate xanthine  Less potent than caffeine  Health Canada  Recommends <400mg of caffeine in healthy adults  Pregnant women <300 mg of caffeine  Other Sources of Caffeine o Soft drinks  Coca Cola  1886 - Nerve tonic  Contains caramel, fruit flavouring, phosphoric acid, caffeine, and merchandise No.5  Originally contained cocaine, but no traces now  1981 – cola no longer has to have caffeine  No more than 0.2 mg per mL  Regular colas most popular soft drink  Guaranine – caffeine from a different plant  Health Canada – strict regulations on caffeine but none on guaranine  1-2 soft drinks a day increases type II diabetes by 26% o “Energy” drinks  1985 – first energy drink, Jolt Cola  72mg of caffeine in 12oz can  Starbucks coffee has 320 mg in 16oz cup  Mountain dew’s caffeine content higher than major cola brands  Red Bull  80mg / 8.3 oz can  Significant effects on psychological functions compared with placebo controls  Exerts positive synergistic effects on reaction time, attention, memory and mood  Enhances feelings of well-being and extroversion o OTC drugs  Non-prescription drugs include caffeine, sometimes large amounts  80% of Canadians regularly use caffeine in some form  Average intake is 200-250 mg /day o Wide range o Some consume 1000 mg or more each day Drugs and Behaviour – Chapter 11 and Chapter 7 (154-157)  Caffeine pharmacology o Xanthine – oldest stimulant o Three primary xanthines  Caffeine, theophylline, theobromine  Similar effects on body o Caffeine – greatest effect o Theobromine – almost no stimulant effect on CNS  Theophylline most potent, caffeine least potent on cardiovascular system o Time course  Rapid absorption after oral intake  Peak at 30 minutes  Maximal effects not reached for about 2 hours  Onset begins within 30 mins after intake  Half- life of 3 hours  Cross tolerance  Loss of tolerance can take more than 2 months of abstinence  Low grade tolerance and increasing dose 2-4x, effect can be obtained  Less tolerance to CNS stimulation effect  Tolerance shown - direct action on kidneys, increase urine output, salivary flow  Caffeine dependence is real, unpleasant withdrawal effects  Reinforcing effect of caffeine contributes to psychological dependence  Withdrawal signs  Headache  Fatigue  Dysphoric mood  Flu-like somatic system  Strongest during first 2 days, decline over 5-6 days o Mechanism of action  early 1980s – xanthenes block adenosine receptors  produces behavioural sedation by inhibiting other neurotransmitter release  norepinephrine is released
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