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Chapter 11

PS268 - Chapter 11 - Caffeine

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Wilfrid Laurier University
Bruce Mc Kay

Chapter 11 – Caffeine Caffeine belongs to the methylaxanthine biochemical family which also includes theophylline found in tea and theobromine found in chocolate Coffee - Consumption increased from 96 litres per person in 90’ to 106 litres per person in 2009 - The words caffeine and coffee are both derived from the Arabic word: qahweh - Coffee houses were all things to all people: a place to relax, to learn the news of the day, to seal bargains and to plot - Charles II labelled them “hotbeds of seditious talk and slanderous attacks upon persons in high stations - Tea was cheaper and more readily available than coffee - The british act that taxed tea helped fan he fire that lit the musket that fired the shot heard across the world - Coffee became US’s national drink - Green coffee beans are roasted to improve the colour and taste of the drink made from the beans - Green bean can be stored indefinitely; ground coffee can be maintained at its peak level in the home only for a week or two - All coffee is made from two species: COFFEA ARABICA and COFFEA ROBUSTA. - Arabica beans have milder flavour, take longer to develop after planting and require a near- tropical climate to grow properly - Robusta beans have a stronger and bitterer flavour and a higher caffeine content, they are used primarily in less-expensive blends and to make instant coffee - The caffeine that is taken out of the coffee is used mostly in soft drinks (coca-cola) Tea - The tea tree, thea sinensis, is an evergreen and sinensis is the latin word for CHINESE - Tea starts its life on a three metre bush high in the mouths of China, Sri Lanka, India or Indonesia - In one day a plucker will pluck enough leaves to make 4.5 kilograms of tea as sold in the grocery store - Loose black tea contains a higher concentration of caffeine than do coffee beans - Most tea has 40-60 milligrams of caffeine (less caffeine than coffee..) - Theophylline – very affective at relaxing the bronchial passages and is prescribed for use by asthmatics Chocolate - Cocoa tree theobroma, “food of Gods” - The chocolatl from the Mayan words choco (warm) and latl (beverage) was flavoured with vanilla but far from the chocolate of today - Theobromine – a xanthine found in chocolate o Its physiological actions closely parallel those of caffeine but it is much less potent in its effects on the central nervous system - Drinking and enjoying chocolate use to be by wealthy and fashionable, it became more of a social drink - The result of grinding the kernels is a thick liquid called chocolate liquor - The average cup of cocoa contains about 200 milligrams of theobromine but only 4 milligrams of caffeine - Health Canada recommends a daily caffeine intake of LESS THAN 40 milligram for healthy adults (about 8oz coffee) o They also recommend that the woman of reproductive age consume less than 30 mg. Other sources of Caffeine Soft drinks - Pemberton’s green nerve tonic: secret mixture called Merchandise No. 5 - Coca cola was touted as the new and popular fountain drink containing the tonic properties of the wonderful coca plant and the famous coca nut - The name coca cola was originally conceived to indicate the nature of its two ingredients with tonic properties: coca leaves and cola (kola) nuts - Some of the literature suggests that the panademic of type II diabetes is related to soft drinks o Drinking one or two sugared soft drinks a day increased the risk of developing type II diabetes by 26% Energy Drinks - Jolt cola the first energy drink - Jolt had the maximum allowable caffeine content at almost 72 mg in a 355 mg in a 12 oz can - This might be a lot for a soft drink but isn’t it a great deal when compared with 320 mg in a 475 mg cup of starbucks coffee - The original marketers seemed to be aiming the product at people who exercise and build their bodies by including some ingredients found in dietary supplements sold to athletes such as amino acid taurine - Mountain dews’ caffeine content is higher than the major brands of cola in the US but still not high compared to coffee - Redbull – 80 milligrams per 245 millilitre (8.3 oz) Caffeine Pharmacology - Xanthine is a greek word meaning YELLOW; the colour of residue that remains after xanthines are heated with nitric acid until dry - The three xanthines of primary importance are caffeine, theophylline and theobromine o Some are related to alkaloids; insoluable in water but these are unique and are slightly
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