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Chapter 10

Drugs and Behaviour Chapter 10.docx

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Wilfrid Laurier University
Bruce Mc Kay

Chapter 10 – Tobacco Tobacco History  The Aboriginal peoples here were using tobacco  Columbus recorded that the people of San Salvador presented him with tobacco leaves on October 12,1492  Inhaling smoke was called drinking o You either “took” (used snuff) or “drank” (smoked) tobacco.  The word tobacco came from one of two sources. o Tobacco referred to a two-pronged tube used by Aboriginal people to take snuff o Developed its current usage from the province of Tobacos in Mexico, where everyone used the herb.  Rodrigo de Jerez, introduced tobacco drinking to Europe. Early Medical Uses  Used for “persistent headaches,” “cold or catarrh,” and “abscesses and sores on the head.”  Jean Nicot o Successful in “curing” the migraine headaches of Catherine de Medici, queen of Henry II of France o Called the herbe sainte, “holy plant,” and the herbe a tous les maux, “the plant against all evils”  Linnaeus o Named the plant genus Nicotiana  When a pair of French chemists isolated the active ingredient in 1828 they called it nicotine.  Dr. William Vaughn – predicted adverse effects on reproductive functioning in men and women  Was gradually removed tobacco from the doctor’s black bag, and nicotine was dropped from the United States Pharmacopoeia in the 1890s. The Spread of Tobacco Use  More than 60 species of Nicotiana  Two major ones: 1. Nicotiana tobacum  Large-leaf species  Indigenous only to South America  The Spanish had a monopoly on its production for more than a hundred years 2. Nicotiana rustica  Small-leaf species  Existed in the West Indies and eastern North America  British took with them seeds of the rustica species and planted them in England, but it never grew well.  John Rolfe got some seeds of the Spanish tobacum species o By 1619, as much Virginia a tobacco as Spanish tobacco was sold in London. o King James prohibited the cultivation of any tobacco in England and declared the tobacco trade a royal monopoly.  30 Years’ War spread smoking throughout central Europe  Canada has three major tobacco companies: o Imperial Tobacco Canada Limited o Rothmans, Benson & Hedges Incorporated o JTI-Macdonald Corporation  90% of the tobacco grown in Canada is produced in a highly concentrated area in south-western Ontario Snuff  By 1770 very few people were smoking.  The reign of King George III (1760-1820) was the time of the big snuff. Chewing Tobacco  Boston passed an ordinance in 1798 forbidding anyone from possessing a lighted pipe or “segar” on public streets. o A concern for the fire hazard involved in smoking o Repealed in 1880  The amount of tobacco for smoking did not equal the amount for chewing until 1911 and did not surpass it until the 1920s  Many brands of Canadian cigarettes are made from 100% pure Virginia tobacco.  The start of the twentieth century was the approximate high point for chewing tobacco Cigars  Middle point from chewing tobacco to cigarettes  Cigar manufacturers suggested that cigarettes were drugged with opium and people could not stop using them and that the paper was bleached with arsenic and, thus, was harmful.  They had some help from Thomas Edison  Cigar sales reached their highest level in 1920  Lower cost and changing styles led to the emergence of cigarettes Cigarettes  The Crimean War circulated the cigarette habit throughout Europe  The first British cigarette factory was started in 1856 by a returning veteran of the Crimean War  The date of the first patent on a cigarette-making machine was 1881  Camels o Contained just a hint of Turkish tobacco o Eliminating most of the imported tobacco made the price lower o Had 40% of the market and stayed in front until after World War II  The first ad showing a woman smoking appeared in 1919 o The woman was pictured as Asian  King-size cigarettes appeared in 1939 in the form of Pall Mall, which became the top seller Tobacco under Attack  In 1604, King James of England wrote and published a strong anti-tobacco pamphlet stating that tobacco was “harmefull to the braine, dangerous to the lungs.”  New York City o Made it illegal in 1908 for a woman to use tobacco in public o In the Roaring Twenties women were expelled from schools and dismissed from jobs for smoking  “Cancer by the Carton” drew public attention to the issue of cancer and led to a temporary decline in cigarette sales  Major U.S. tobacco companies recognized the threat and responded vigorously in two important ways 1. The formation of the supposedly independent Council for Tobacco Research to look into the health claims (not actually independent, instead was undermining the scientist’s research) 2. The mass marketing of filter cigarettes and cigarettes with lowered tar and nicotine content.  In the early 1960s, the U.S. surgeon general’s office formed an Advisory Committee on Smoking and Health. o Its first official report, released in 1964, stated clearly that cigarette smoking was a cause for increased lung cancer in men o In 1965, cigarette packages were required to include the surgeon general’s warning. o All television and radio advertising of cigarettes was banned in 1971 o Smoking was banned on intercity buses and domestic airline flights in 1989  Almost 6300 non-smokers die each year in Canada from exposure to second-hand smoke Tobacco History in Canada  In 1908 the Tobacco Restraint Act was passed in Canada o Banned sales of cigarettes to those younger than 16 years of age o Was never enforced  The link between smoking and lung cancer was established in the medical literature in the 1950s o But they kept it hidden from the public  In 1989 o The government began requiring cigarette manufacturers to list the additives and their amounts in each brand o Federal laws were enacted to prohibit tobacco advertising and ensure smoke-free workplaces. o The Tobacco Products Control Act (TPCA), which prohibited all tobacco advertising, required health warnings on tobacco packaging, and restricted promotional activities, came into effect  1993 o Federal law was enacted to raise the legal age for buying tobacco to 18  1994 o Bigger and stronger warning messages were required on cigarette packs o Found evidence of cigarette smoke in fetal hair  First biochemical proof that the offspring of non-smoking mothers can be affected by passive cigarette smoke.  1995 o Supreme Court of Canada squashed the federal ban on tobacco advertising, and tobacco companies launched an aggressive advertising campaign, using billboards, newspaper ads. And event sponsorships.  1997 o Tobacco Act was passed, and its associated regulations imposed:  General restrictions on manufacturers and distributors  Restricted promotion, packaging, and products  Point-of-sale restrictions The Quest for “Safer” Cigarettes  Nicotine appears to be the constituent in tobacco that keeps smokers coming back for more o If the content changes, behaviour changes (more puffs, inhaling deeper) o No satisfaction if it is totally removed  By the 1980s low tar and nicotine cigarettes dominated the market.  Safer doesn’t mean “safe” o Changes in puff rate and depth of inhalation would compensate for the lower yield per puff, and there might be no advantage to switching.  Liggett o Developed a cigarette that, in the laboratory, significantly reduced the number of tumours in mice compared with the company’s standard brand. o Lawyers told Liggett not to publish results – would admit standard brand was hazardous o Did not market the cigarette, led to lawsuit  Reynolds o Attempted to market Premier, a sort of non-cigarette cigarette in 1988  The product contained catalytic crystals coated with a tobacco extract but no obvious tobacco.  Produced no smoke, but inhaling through them allowed the user to absorb some nicotine.  Unable to find a legal way to sell the product and was forced to drop it o Marketed Eclipse in 2004  Another high-tech “cigarette” that it was said “may present less risk,” and produces up to 80% less smoke than a regular cigarette  Contains tobacco, but it is not burned – the user lights a carbon element that heats a small aluminum tube that in turn heats the tobacco, releasing vapours and a small amount of smoke. Current Cigarette Use  Above average among those attending university in Quebec (18.3%) and the Atlantic provinces (16.9%) and lowest among those from British Columbia (9.6%) and the Prairies (8.9%)  Almost perfectly inverse linear relationship between number of years of education and the percentage of that group that smokes cigarettes.  Since 1985, smoking prevalence has decreased in all age groups, with an overall average decrease of 14%.  That 82% of adolescents ages 15-19 years and 70% of Inuit ages 18-45 years are current smokers. Smokeless Tobacco  The most common types of oral smokeless tobacco are: o loose-leaf (Red Man, Levi Garrett, Beech Nut), which is sold in a pouch  common with baseball players  sales increased by about 50% in the 70s o moist snuff (Copenhagen, Skoal), which is sold in a can
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