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PS268 (56)
Chapter 6

PS268 Chapter 6 Book notes

9 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PS268
Professor
Cheryl Limebeer

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Chapter 6 Notes - Stimulants generally excite the central nervous system and depressents usually inhibit it Cocaine: - Creates feelings of: intense pleasure, increased alertness, decreased appetite and decreased need for sleep History: - Earliest civilization in the Americas (5000 BCE) traced the use of Coca (a bush that grows in the Andes and produces cocaine) - Natives in Andes Mountains in Bolivia and Peru: chew leaves continually in mouth (allows allows for better running and carrying) o Psychoactive effects stronger: add calcified lime (raise alkalinity in mouth) this increase extraction of cocaine (the active chemical in the coca plant) = allows greater absorption into blood stream. o Made crops of coca… and lived near calcified lime… - Erythroxylon coca: thrives et elevations 600-2400 meters on Amazon slope mountains (lots of rain) o Shrub= pruned to accomplish easier picking (3 or 4 times a year) o Cocals: small one-hectare patches of coca (cultivation more than 800 years) - Incas: developed civilization in Peru: coca used in religious ceremonies and as money - Spanish: paid laborers with coca leaves (seen as increasing strength and endurance while decreasing need for food) th - Last half of 19 century: Interested Europeans (coca leaf= economic well-being and fame of three individuals) so they brought it to the attention of the world. 1) Angelo Mariani (French chemist) : introduce coca leaf to general public o Coca wine made him rich and famous: award from the pope 2) Karl Koller (Austrian ophthalmologist): introduce cocaine as local anesthetic for eye surgery o Local anesthetic: Freud had also been testing it… 3) Sigmund Freud (Viennese physician): introduce as means of treatment o Treat: depression and morphine dependence, recommends it to everyone. o 1885 lecture: suppressing craving for morphine (subcutaneous injections of 0.03- 0.05g per dose) o Fleischl: used to treat friend who had an episode of cocaine psychosis - 1890: Shelock holmes shows initial stimulation and later depression - Beginning of 20 century: cocaine was everywhere Legal controls on cocaine - End of 1960’s: amphetamines= harder to obtain, cocaine usage- increasing - 1974: second era of cocaine love o Peter Bourne - Before 1985: cocaine users= wealth and fame (majority snorted, lower abuse potential) - Mid to late 1980’s: smokeable cocaine (crack), cheaper, usage increased (more expensive than powder cocaine) - Media cocaine stories 1) Cocaine- widespread 2) Cocaine causes violent behavior 3) Cocaine causes dependency - 1996: The Controlled Drugs and Substances Act was passed o Cocaine= schedule 1 (1000$ fine or imprisonment for up to 6 months) Supplies of Illicit cocaine in Canada - 2009: Columbia largest cultivator of coca bush - 2008: 15% decrease production of cocaine primarily in Columbia - Mexico: increased smuggling to Canada and U.S (U.s is primary transit city for cocaine destined to Canada) - 2007: increase in liquid cocaine - Increase in highway vehicles transporting cocaine - Cocaine+ Crack = readily available in Canada - Purity: between 50-75% - Production and smuggling practices are forever changing Cocaine, Crime and Ethnicity - Drug laws in U.s regarding cocaine analyzed (1995, 1997, 2002, 2007); 1) Current penalties exaggerate relative harmfulness of crack cocaine 2) Penalties too broad and apply most often to lower-level offenders 3) Quantity-based penalties over-state seriousness of most crack cocaine offences + fail to provide adequate proportionality 4) Penalties severity mostly affects Blacks - Canada does not keep record of ethnicity of offenders but more minorities than Caucasian offenders in drug-related offences versus other offences. - Black = robbery and violence, Asian= drugs, Caucasian= homicide - Aboriginals… false data Pharmacology of cocaine - Source: coca (Erythroxylum coca)… includes cocaine (a powerful stimulant) which is in the coca leaves (2%) - Chemical structure: complicated and does not resemble any neurotransmitter in the brain Forms of cocaine - Coca leaves mixed with an organic solvent (kerosene or gasoline) and the excess liquid that is filtered out is called coca paste crude extract containing cocaine in a smokeable form). - Paste can be made into cocaine hydrochloride (most common form of pure cocaine/ stable and water soluble) it cannot be heated to form vapors for inhalation (can snort or inject) - Can convert cocaine into freebase (method of preparing cocaine as chemical base so it can be smoked) extract it into a volatile organic solvent like ether. (can be dangerous) - Crack/Rock (street name for simple stable preparation of cocaine base for smoking) cocaine can be made with household items Mechanism of action - Cocaine block reuptake of dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin (causing prolonged effects of these neurotransmitters) - Cocaine’s behavioral effects depends on interactions between dopamine, serotonin, GABA and glutamate - Cocaine attaches to dopamine transporter and blocks normal reuptake of it = dopamine reuptake (contributes to euphoric effects) Absorption and elimination - Chewing + sucking allows for absorption through mucous membranes: slower onset + lower blood levels than snorting - Snorting: most commonly used, cocaine hydrochloride powder absorbed rapidly and reaches brain fast through circulatory mechanisms - Intravenous: high concentration to brain with rapid and brief effect (compulsive users) - Smoking is preferred because less invasive+ onset of effects is just as fast - Cocaine molecules metabolized by enzymes in blood and liver. Cocaine is rapidly removed (half-life= 1 hour), major metabolites (urine) = half-life, 8 hours Medical uses of cocaine - Local anesthesia: discovered in 1860, 1884 started being used medically. Used today for surgery in nasal, laryngeal and esophageal regions - 1980: to overcome fatigue Causes for concern - No evidence in a problem from occasional use of small amounts - Acute toxicity: o profound CNS stimulation, progression to convulsions which can lead to cardiac arrest. o Similar to Amphetamine but more variation among patients. o Can trigger chaotic hearth rhythm called ventricular fibrillation by preventing vagus nerve from controlling the heartbeat. o Allergic reactions (fluid in lungs). o 1992: combination of cocaine and alcohol could form a chemical called cocaethylene (more potent than cocaine in mice, less potent in humans) - Chronic toxicity: o Snorting: can irritate nasal septum = chronically inflamed runny nose o Persistent cuts, burns,
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