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Chapter 13

Chapter 13 - Opioids.docx

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Wilfrid Laurier University
Bruce Mc Kay

Chapter 13Opioids Cultivation and history of opium Papaver somniferum the poppy that brings sleep Being used for medical purposes for over 6000 years Opioid term replaced by narcotic analgetic narcotic analgetic How to harvestCut the plant a little then came back later to get opium sapoOpium is produced and available for collection for only a few days of the poppy plants life Opium wars People ate opium for years with very few problems then they started smoking it thanks to Columbus 1729 Opium smoking outlawed in china but smuggling was widespread British East India Company was involved in opium trade legally in India and illegally in China Pressure grew and eventually war broke out between Britsh and Chinese 18391842 18561860 opium wars are faught China loses forece to allow opium sales by the british Morphine 1806 active ingredient in opium isolated o10 times more potent as opium oNamed morphium after Morpheus the god of dreams 1832Another Alkaloid of opium discovered oNamed codeine from the Greek word for poppy head Medically useful characteristic oPure chemical oKnown potency Use spread due to two developments o1853 hypodermic syringe allowed delivery of morphine directly into the blood oWidespread use during war provided relied from pain and dysentery Any veterans we depended on morphine and dependence was later called solders disease or army disease Morphine allowed detailed surgery for the dirtime not just amputation oBattlefield surgical kit bone saw meat knife wire cutters It was originally thought that orally would not provide the same amount of craving turned out falseMorphine also stops diarrhea stops you from dying from dehydrationHeroinTwo acetyl groups added to morphine in the laboratory creating diacetylmorphine oGiven the brand name of heroinoPlaced on the market in 1898 by Bayer Three times as potent as morphine due to increased lipid solubility of the heroin molecule Marketed as a nonhabitforming substitute for codeine oLater linked to dependence
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