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Colleen Loomis

Chapter 1: Introduction to Developmental Psychology and Its Research Strategies INTRODUCTION OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY What is Development? - Development: refers to systematic continuities and changes in an individual over the course of life - By describing changes as systematic, we imply that they are patterned and enduring - Developmental continuities: ways in which we remain stable over time or continue to reflect on the past - Developmental psychology: branch of psychology devoted to identifying and explaining the continuities and changes that individuals display over time - Is multidisciplinary What Causes Us To Develop? - 2 important processes that underlie developmental change: maturation and learning - Maturation: developmental changes in the body or behaviour that results from the aging process rather than from learning, injury, illness, or some other life experience  Allows us to be able to walk and talk by age 1, sexual maturity at 11-15, and then die  Partly responsible for psychological changes such as increasing ability to concentrate, problem solving, and understand other people’s thought/feelings  Humans are so similar because our heredity guides us through many of the same developmental changes at the same point in our lives - Learning: the process through which our experiences produce relatively permanent changes in our feelings, thoughts, and behaviours  We change in response to our environments often learn to feel, think and behave by observing friends and family or other important people in our lives - Most changes are the product of both What Goals Do Developmentalists Pursue? - 3 major goals of developmental sciences are to describes, explain, and to optimize development  To describe have to observe behaviour of people of different ages, seeking to specify how people change overtime o Even when raised in the same home, children often display very different interests, values, abilities, and behaviours o Normative Development: developmental changes that characterize most or all members of a species; typical patterns of development o Ideographic Development: individual variations in the rate, extent, or direction of development  To explainhope to determine why people develop as they typically do and why some people develop differently than others o Explanation centres both on normative changes within individuals and variations in development between individuals  To optimize apply what they have learned in attempts to help people develop in positive directions o Is a practical side to the study of human development that has lead to ways to  Promote strong affectional ties between fussy, unresponsive infants and their frustrated parents  Assist children with learning difficulties to succeed at school o Many believe that optimization will increasingly influence research agendas in the 21 century Some Basic Observations About The Character of Development A Continual and Cumulative Process - Developmentalists have learned that the first 12 years are the most important part of the life span that sets the stage for adolescence and adulthood - The one constant is change, and the change that occurs at each major phase of life can have important implications Period of life Age range Prenatal period Conception to birth Infancy period First year of life Toddler period 18m-3y Preschool period 3-5y Middle childhood 5-12y (until puberty) A Holistic Process - Used to divide Developmentalists into 3 categories: 1. Those who studied physical growth and development(bodily changes, motor skills) 2. Those who studied cognitive aspects(perception, language, learning) 3. Those who studied psychosocial aspects (emotions, personality)  This is misleading because changes in one can lead to changes in others - Development is Holistic: unified view of developmental process that emphasizes the important interrelationships among the physical, mental, social, and emotional aspects of human development Plasticity - Plasticity: capacity for change, a developmental state that has the potential to be shaped by experience, both positive and negative - the course of development can change abruptly if important aspects of one’s life change. Ie. Aggressive children who are intensely disliked often improve their social status after learning and practising the social skills that popular children display - allows kids with horrible starts to be helped and overcome their deficiencies Historical/ Cultural Context - each culture, subculture, and social class transmits a certain pattern of beliefs, values, and customs - the content of this cultural socialization has a strong influence in the attributes and competencies that individuals display - historical events such as wars, technology advances (the creation of the internet) also influence development - only by adopting a historical/cultural perspective can we fully appreciate the richness and diversity of human development Human Development in Historical Perspective - western societies can be considered as ‘child- centred’ parents focus too much on the lives of their children - childhood and adolescence were not regarded as the special and sensitive periods like they are today Childhood in Pre-modern Times - children had few rights and lives weren’t valued by elders - ancient Carthaginians killed of children as sacrifices and embedded their bodies into walls to make them ‘stronger’ - Romans legally could kill their child if it was deformed, illegitimate or unwanted - For many centuries, children were viewed as family possessions - Medieval laws made no distinction between childhood and adult offences Toward Modern- Day Views on Childhood th th - During 17 and 18 century views began to change - Religious leaders stressed children were innocent and helpless souls that need to be protected - Did this by putting children into school so they could learn moral and religious education and turn into ‘servants and workers’ - Still considered property, but abuse was now discouraged - The increasing complex of technology placed the premium on getting an educated labour force, rather than little children th - Laws in late 19 century to restrict child labour and make school mandatory - Teens began to develop their own peer culture and so teens became its own ‘category’ - Increased life span after WW II led to people obtaining more education (university), marrying later - Allows adolescence to have time to explore Early Philosophical Perspectives on Childhood - Social philosophers contributed to the change in thinking in the 17 and 18 centuryth - Social philosophers began to question: 1. Are children good or bad? 2. Are children driven by inborn motives and instincts, or are they products of their environments 3. Are children actively in shaping their characters, or are they passive creatures moulded by parents, teachers, and others - Original sin: idea that children are inherently negative creatures who must be taught to re- channel their selfish interests into socially acceptable outlets (Thomas Hobbes )  Argued parents must actively control their egoistic children - Innate Purity: idea that infants are born with an intuitive sense of right and wrong that is often misdirected by the demands and restrictions of society (Jean Jacques Rousseau)  Argued that parents should give their children freedom to follow their inherently positive inclinations - Tabula Rasa: the idea that the mind of an infant is a ‘blank slate’ and that all knowledge, abilities, behaviours and motives are acquired through experience (John Locke)  How children turn out is entirely dependent on their worldly experiences  Argued in favour of disciplined children rearing to ensure that children would develop good habits and acquire few bad ones Development of Children’s Rights In Canada - Brian Howe identified 3 changes in Canadian policy that reflect the historical changes - Canadian children moved from being viewed as family property to dependents in need of state protection - This gave way to the recognition that children were semi-independent with rights of their own - Society is moving toward recognition that children are entities with their own rights and should be afforded the economic security guaranteed to other members of society Origins of a Science of Development st - G. Stanley Hall is considered founder of developmental psychology (conducted 1 large scale investigations of children)  Interested in children’s thinking and developed the questionnaire to ‘explore the contents of the children’s mind’  Discovered children’s understanding of the world grows rapidly - Sigmund Freud created the psychoanalytic theory that became widely accepted by researchers as a means to understand one’s internal thinking - Theory: a set of concepts designed to organize, describe, and explain existing set of observations - Hypothesis: a theoretical prediction about some aspect of experience RESEARCH STRATEGIES: BASIC METHODS AND DESIGNS Research Methods in Child and Adolescent Development The Scientific Method - Scientific Method: the use of objective and replicable methods to gather data for the purpose of testing a theory or hypothesis. It dictates that, above all, investigators must be objective and must aloe their data to decide the merits of their thinking - A valuable safe guard that helps to protect the scientific community and society at large against flawed reasoning Gathering Data: Basic Fact- Finding Strategies - We must find ways to measure the different aspects of development - Scientifically useful measures must always display 2 important qualities: reliability and validity - Reliability: the extent to which a measuring instrument yields consistent results, both over time and across behaviours - Validity: the extent to which a measuring instrument accurately reflects what the researchers intended to measure - Interrater -Reliability: to be reliable, the measure would have to produce comparable estimates from independent observers - Temporal Stability: would yield similar scores from one testing to another Self- Report Methodologies - Used to gather information and test hypotheses - 3 Common procedures: interviews, questionnaires, clinical method Interviews and Questionnaires - Ask a series of questions pertaining to such aspects of development as the child’s conduct, feelings and beliefs - Collecting data requires putting questionnaires on paper and asking participants to write their answers - Interview requires participants to respond orally - Structured Interview/ Structured Questionnaire: a technique in which all participants are asked the same questions in precisely the same order so that the responses of different participants can be compared  Excellent methods to obtain large amounts of useful information in a short period of time  Useful when mention that the information will be confidential maximizing the chances of the answers being more truthful - Neither approach can be used with very young children who can’t read or comprehend speech - Answers may not always be honest The Clinical Method - Clinical Method: a type of interview in which a participants response to each successive question (or problem) determines what the investigator will ask next - Is interested in testing a hypothesis by presenting a task or stimuli and then inviting a response - The original question is the same among participants, their answer will determine the next questions - Is a flexible approach that makes every participant unique - Jean piaget relied on this method to study childrens moral reasoning - Useful to gather large amounts of information in a short period - Difficult to compare the answers of participants who are asked different questions - Conclusions drawn, are subjective to the interpretation of the researcher The Observational Method - Naturalistic Observation: a method in which the scientist tests hypotheses by observing people as they engage in everyday activities in their natural habitats - usually testing for a specific hypothesis about one type of behaviour (cooperation, aggression) - can easily be applied to infants and toddlers who often can’t be studied through other methods - illustrates how people actually behave in everyday life - some behaviors occur so infrequently/ are socially undesirable that they are unlikely to be seen by an unknown observer - many events are happening at the same time and any combination can have an effects on ones behaviourmakes it hard to find the cause - the presence of an observer makes people act differently than how they normally would - Observer Influence: tendency of participants to react to an observer’s presence by behaving in unusual ways  Minimize this by, videotaping the participants instead  Spending time in the setting before collecting their ’real’ data so the individual being recorded gets used to your presence and acts more naturally - Time Sampling: a procedure in which the investigator records the frequencies with which individuals display particular behaviours during the brief time intervals that each is observed - Structured Observation: an observational methods in which the investigator cues the behaviour of interest and observes participants responses in a laboratory  Viewed through hidden cameras or a one-way mirror  Most feesable way of studying infrequent behaviour  Allows all participants to be exposed to the same eliciting stimuli and has an equal opportunity to perform the target behaviour  Participants may not respond in the lab the way they would in a natural setting Case Studies - Case Study: a research method in which the investigator gathers extensive information about the life of an individual and then tests developmental hypotheses by analyzing the events of the person’s life history - Can use interviews, questionnaires, and the clinical method - Family background, soscioeconomic status, health records, academic work and history, performance on psychological tests - Can be used to describe groups - Hard to compare subjects who have been asked different questions, taken different tests - Lack generalizability - Conclusions drawn should be verified with other techniques Ethnography - Ethnography: method in which the researcher seeks to understand the unique values, traditions and social processes of a culture or subculture by living with its members and making extensive observations and notes - Data collected is diverse and extensive - Notes from naturalistic observations, conversations - Highly subjective method because researchers own cultures and values can cause them to misinterpret - Conclusions pertain only to the culture/subculture and cannot be assumed to generalize to other contexts and social groups Psychophysiological Methods - Psychophysiological Methods: methods that measure the relationship between physiological processes and aspects of children’s physical, cognitive, social, or emotional behaviour/development - Useful for understanding infants and toddlers who cant report the events on their own - Heart rate is an involuntary physiological response that is highly sensitive to psychological experiences - Use electroencephalogram(EEG) to measure brain activity - Hard to determine what part of a stimulus is causing the participants to change their response - Physiological responses also reflect mood swings, hunger, fatigue Detecting Relationships: Correlational, and Cross-Cultural Designs The Correlational Design - Correlational Design: a type of research design that indicates the strength of associations among variables, though correlated variables are systematically related, these relationships are not necessarily casual - Doesn’t permit determination of cause-and-effect relationships among variables - Correlational Coefficient: numerical index, ranging from -1.00 to +1.00, of the strength and direction of the relationship between 2 variables  +: if one variable increases, so does the other  -: as one variable increases, the other variable decreases The Experimental Design - Experimental Design: a research design in which the investigator introduces some change in the participant’s environment and then measures the effect of that change in the participant’s behaviour - Independent variable: the aspect of the environment that an experimenter modifies or manipulates in order to measure impact on behaviour - Dependent variable: the aspect of behaviour that is measured in an experiment and assumed to be under the control of the independent variable - Cofounding variable: some factor other than the independent variable that, if not controlled by the experimenter, could explain the differences across treatment conditions in participants’ performance on the dependent variable - Experimental Control: steps taken by an experimenter to ensure that all extraneous factors that could influence the dependent variable are roughly equivalent in each experimental condition; these precautions must be taken before an experimenter can be certain that the changes observed in the DV were caused by the manipulation of the IV - Random Assignment: control technique in which participants are assigned to experimental conditions through an unbiased procedure so that the members of the groups are not systematically different from one another - Permits a determination of cause-and-effect relationship among variables - Data obtained in artificial laboratory environment may lack generalizability to the real world - Ecological Validity: state of affairs in which the findings of one’s research are an accurate representation of processes that occur in the natural environment The Field Experiment - Field Experiment: an experiment that takes place in a naturalistic setting such as at home, school, or a playground - has all the advantages of naturalistic observation with the more rigorous control that experimentation allows - participants may not know they are being observed and act how they naturally would - permits determination of cause-and-effect relationships and generalization of findings to the real world - experimental treatments may be less potent and harder to control when presented in the natural environment The Natural (or Quasi-) Experiment - Natural( or Quasi-) Experiment: a study in which the investigator measures the impact of some naturally occurring event that is assumed to affect people’s lives - Permits a study of the impact in natural events that would be difficult or impossible to simulate in an experiment - Provides strong clues about cause-and-effect relationships - Lack of precise control over natural events or the participants exposed to them - Prevents the investigator from establishing a definitive cause-and-effect relationship Cross-Cultural Designs - Universals in Human Development: events and outcomes that all children share as they progress from infancy to adulthood - Cross Cultural Comparisons: a study that compares the behaviour and/or development of people from different cultural or sub-cultural backgrounds - Some investigators use cross-cultural approaches in order to find differences rather than similarities - People in different cultures perceive the world in different ways RESEARCH STRATEGIES AND STUDYING DEVELOPMENT Research Designs for Studying Development The Cross Sectional Design - Cross Sectional Design: A research design in which subjects from different age groups are studied at the same point in time - Cohort: a group of people of the same age who are exposed to similar cultural environments and historical events as they are growing up - by comparing participants of different age groups, investigators can often identify age-related changes in whatever aspect of development that they are studying Cohort Effects - Cohort Effect: age related difference among cohorts that is attributable to cultural/historical differences in cohorts’ growing up experiences rather than to true developmental change - ie. Intelligence at different ages those in their middle ages had received less education then the younger kids which is why they scored less. DOES NOT have to do with reducing intelligence as one gets older Data on Individual Development - tells us nothing about the development of individuals because each person is observed at only one point in time The Longitudinal Design - Longitudinal Design: a research design in which one group of subjects is studied repeatedly over a period of time - By repeatedly testing the same participants, investigators can assess the stability( continuity) of various attributes for each person - Can identify normative developmental trends and trends by looking at commonalities - Time consuming and expensive - Selective attribution may yield non-representative sample that limits the generalizability of conclusions - Cross generalization changes may limit one’s conclusions to the cohort that was studied - Practise Effects: changes in the participants natural responses as a result of repeated testing - Selective Attribution: non-random loss of participants during a study that results in a non- representative sample - Non-representative Sample: a subgroup that differs in important ways from the larger group to which it belongs - Cross Generalization Problem: the fact that long term changes in the environment may limit the conclusions of a longitudinal project to that generation of children who were growing up while the study was in progress The Sequential Design - Sequential Design: a research design in which subjects from different age groups are studied repeatedly over a period of months or years - Combines the cross sectional and longitudinal approaches by observing different approaches - Discriminates true developmental trends from cohort effects - Indicated whether developmental changes experiences by one cohort are similar to those experienced by other cohorts - Often less costly and time consuming than the longitudinal approach - STRONGEST DESIGN - More costly and time consuming than cross sectional research - Mays till leave questions about whether a developmental change is generalizable beyond the cohorts studied The Microgenetic Design - Microgenetic Design: a research design in which children who are thought to be ready for an important developmental change are exposed repeatedly to experiences that are thought to produce the change and their behaviour is monitored as it is changing - Extensive observation of changes as they occur can reveal how and why changes occur - Extensive experiences given to stimulate changes may be somewhat atypical and produce changes that may not persist over long periods Ethical Considerations in Developmental Research - Research Ethics: the standards of conduct that investigators are ethically bound to honour in order to protect their research participants from physical or psychological harm - Informed Consent: the right of research participants to receive explanation, in language they can understand, of all aspects of research that may affect their willingness to participate - Benefits to Risk Ratio: a comparison of the possible benefits of a study for advancing knowledge and optimizing life conditions versus the costs to participants in terms of inconvenience and possible harm - Confidentiality: the right of participants to concealment of their identity with respect to the data that they want to provide - Protection From Harm: the right of research participants to be protected from physical or psychological harm Chapter 2: Theories of Human Development THE NATURE OF SCIENTIFIC THEORIES - Theory: set of concepts and propositions designed to organize, describe, and explain an existing set of observations - Parsimony: a criterion for evaluating the scientific merit of theories, is one that uses relatively few explanatory principles to explain a broad set of observations - Falsifiability: a criterion for evaluating the scientific merit of theories, a theory is falsifiable when it is capable of generating predictions that could be disconfirmed - Heuristic Value: a criterion for evaluating the scientific merit of theories. A heuristic theory is one that continues to stimulate new research and discoveries QUESTIONS AND CONTROVERSIES ABOUT HUMAN DEVELPOMENT - Nature/Nurture Issue: the debate among theorists about the relative importance of biological predispositions (nature) and environmental influences(nurture) as determinants of human development - Activity/Passive Issue: a debate among theorists about whether children are active contributors to their own development or, rather, passive recipients of environmental influence - Continuity/ Discontinuity Issue: a debate among theorists about whether developmental changes are quantitative and continuous or qualitative and discontinuous - Quantitative change: incremental change in degree without sudden transformations, for example, some view the small yearly increases in height and weight that 2-11 year olds as a quantitative change - Developmental stage: distinct phase within a larger sequence of development, a period characterized by a particular set of abilities, motives, behaviours, or emotions that occur together to form a coherent pattern The Holistic Nature of Development Theme - The extent to which development is holistic versus a segmented and separate process - Whether or not different aspects such ash cognition, personality, social and biological development are interrelated and influence each other THE PSYCHOANALYTIC VIEWPOINT Freud’s Psychosexual Theory - Formed his theory from his analysis of his emotionally disturbed patients - Relied heavily on methods such as hypnosis, free association, and dream analysis to indicate unconscious motives - Psychosexual Theory: states that maturation of the sex instinct underlies stages of personality development, and that the manner in which parents manage children’s instinctual impulses determines the traits that children display - Unconscious Motives: Freud’s term for feelings, experiences and conflicts that influence a person’s thinking and behaviour, but lie outside the person’s awareness - Repression: a type of motivated forgetting in which anxiety- provoking thoughts and conflicts are forced out of conscious awareness - Instinct: an inborn biological force that motivated a particular response or class of responses Three Components of Personality - Components develop and gradually become integrated in a series of 5 developmental psychosexual stages - ID: is present at birth and functions to satisfy the inborn biological instincts. (babies seem to be all id) - EGO: is the consciousness, rational component of the personality that reflects the child’s emerging abilities to perceive, learn, remember and reason - SUPEREGO: is the seat of the conscience. It develops between 3-6 as children internalize (take on as their own)the moral values and standards of their parents - all conflict with each other - in a healthy person: the id communicates basic needs, ego restrains the impulsive id enough to find realistic methods to satisfy those needs, superego decides whether the ego’s methods are morally acceptable Stages of Psychological Development - Freud thought sex was the most important instinct - as one grew older, the sex instinct’s focus shifted from one body part to another and that each stage brought on a new stage of psychosexual development  birth-1: oral  1-3: anal  3-6: phallic (oedipus and electra complex)  6-11: latency (problem solving )  12+: genital - Fixation: arrested development at a particular psychosexual stage that can prevent movement to higher stages - Early childhood experiences and conflicts heavily influence our adult interests, activities, and personalities Erikson’s Theory of Psychosocial Development Comparing Erikson with Freud - Stressed that children are active, curious explorers who seek to adapt to their environment rather than being passive slaves to biological urges - Called an ‘ego’ psychologist because he believed that each stage of life, people must cope with social realities in order to adapt successfully and display a normal pattern of development - In Erikson’s theory, the ego is far more than a mediator - Erikson places less emphasis on sexual urges and more on cultural influences - Psychosocial Theory: emphasizes socio-cultural determinants rather than sexual ones and posits a series of 8 psychosocial conflicts that people must resolve to successfully display a healthy psychosocial adjustment 8 Life Crises - Birth-1:basic trust vs mistrust - 1-3: autonomy vs shame and doubt - 3-6: initiative vs guilt - 6-12: industry vs inferior - 12-20: identity vs role confusion - 20-40(young adulthood): intimacy vs isolation - 40-65(middle adulthood): generativity vs stagnation - Old age: ego integrity vs despair THE LEARNING VIEWPOINT Watson’s Behaviourism - Behaviourism: a school of thinking that holds the conclusion about human development should be based on controlled observations of overt behaviour rather than speculation about unconscious motives or other unobservable phenomena - Habits: well-learned associations between external stimuli and observable responses are the building blocks for human development - Viewed infants as tabula rasa (blank slate) that needs to be filled with experience - Parents are largely responsible for what their children become Skinner’s Operant Learning Theory (Radical Behaviourism) - Proposed a form of learning that is the basis for most habits - Argued that both animals and humans repeat acts that lead to favourable outcomes and suppress those that lead to unfavourable ones - Reinforcer: any desirable consequence of an act that increases the probability that the act will occur - Punisher: any consequence of an act that suppresses that act and/or decreases the probability that it will reoccur - Operant learning: a form of learning in which voluntary acts (operants) become either more or less probable, depending on the consequences they produce Bandura’s Cognitive Social Learning Theory - People are cognitive beings who unlike animals, think about relationships between their behaviour and the consequences - They are more often affected by what they believe will happen than by what they actually experience - Observational learning: learning that results from observing others behaviours - Observational learning allows children to acquire thousands of new responses in a variety of settings Social Learning as Reciprocal Determinism - Environmental Determinism: the notion that children are passive creatures who are moulded by their environments - Children will become whatever parents, teachers, and other agents groom them to be He DISAGREED - Said children are active, thinking beings who contribute to their own development - Reciprocal Determinism: the notion that the flow of influence between children and their environments goes 2 ways; the environment may affect the child, but the child may also affect the environment THE COGNITIVE- DEVELOPMENT VIEWPOINT - Jean Piaget contributed a lot to the understanding of children’s thinking - Created the first standardized intelligence test - Learned children are not less intelligent then older children, rather they have a totally different thought process Piaget’s View of Intelligence and Intellectual Growth - Defined intelligence as a basic life process that helps an organism adapt to its environment - Schema: an organized pattern of thought or action that a child constructs to make sense of some aspect of his or her experience  Piaget called them cognitive structures - Assimilation: Piaget’s term for the process by which children interpret new experiences by incorporating them into existing schemas - Disequilibriums: imbalances or contradictions between ones thought processes and environmental events - Accommodations: Piaget’s term for the process by which children modify their existing schemas in order to incorporate or adapt to new experiences - Believed we continually relied on both assimilation and accommodation to adapt to our environments 4 Stages of Cognitive Development - Birth-2: sensorimotor stagegain a sense of self, learn objects exist even when out of sight - 2-7: preoperational stagebecome imaginative, recognize other people may not perceive the world as they do - 7-11: concrete-operational stage not fooled by appearances, can infer motives, understand basic properties of relations among objects and events - 11+: formal- operational stage enjoy pondering and hypothetical thinking, become idealistic, capable of reasoning - Invariant Developmental Sequence: a series of development that occur in a certain order because each stage is a prerequisite to the next Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Perspective - Challenged Piaget’s theory - Sociocultural Theory: children acquire their culture’s values, beliefs and problem solving strategies through collaborative dialogues with more knowledgeable members of society - Viewed cognitive growth as a socially mediated activity - A child learns first through interactions - Learned best when instruction is geared towards their zone of proximal Development: the range of tasks that are too complex to be mastered alone but can be accomplished with guidance and encouragement from more skillful people THE INFORMATION- PROCESSING VIEWPOINT - Information Processing Theory: a perspective that the human mind as a continuously developing symbol manipulating system into which information flows, is operated on, and is converted into output (answers, inferences, solutions) - Biological maturation is important - Maturation of the brain and nerves enables children to process information faster - Propose that cognitive development is continuous and involves small quantitative changes THE ETHOLOGICAL (EVOLUTIONARY) VIEWPOINT - Ethology: the study of the bio-evolutionary bases of behaviour and development Assumptions of Classical Ethology - All species are born with a number of ‘biologically programmed’ behaviours that are:  Products of evolution  Adaptive in that they contribute to survival - Natural Selection: an evolutionary process, proposed by Charles Darwin, stating that individuals with characteristics that promote adaptation to the environment will survive, reproduce, and pass these characteristics to offspring - Ethologists focus in inborn responses that:  All members of a species share  May steer individuals along similar developmental paths - Argues that adaptive characteristics are most likely to develop during sensitivity periods provided that the environment fosters this development - Sensitive Period: period of time that is optimal for the development of particular capacities, or behaviours and in which the individual is particularly sensitive to environmental influences that would foster these attribute - Altruism: a selfless concern for the welfare of others that is expressed through pro-social acts such as sharing, cooperating and helping - Empathy: the ability to experience the same emotions that someone else is experiencing THE ECOLOGICAL SYSTEMS VIEWPOINT - Ecological Systems Theory: Bronfenbrenner’s model emphasizing that the developing person is embedded in a series of environmental systems that interact with one another and with the person to influence development Bronfenbrenner’s Contexts for Development - Begins by assuming that natural environments are the major source of influence on developing persons - Often overlooked by researchers who choose to study development in the highly artificial context of the lab The Microsystem - Microsystem: the immediate settings that the person actually encounters, the innermost of Bronfenbrenner’s environmental layers or contexts - For most young infants, the microsystem may be limited to the family - System eventually becomes more complex as children are exposed to more things The Mesosystem - Mesosystem: the interconnections among an individuals immediate settings or Microsystems, the second Bronfenbrenner’s environmental layers or contexts - Development is likely to be optimized by strong, supportive links between Microsystems The Exosystem - Exosystem: social systems that children do no directly experience but may influence their developments, the third layer The Macrosystem - Macrosystem: the larger cultural or sub-cultural context in which development occurs, the outermost layer - Chronosystem: changes in the individual or the environment that occur over time and influence the direction development takes THEORIES AND WORLD VIEWS - theories can be grouped according to the world views that underlie them - as Developmentalists have come to appreciate the complexity and diversity of human development - Contextual Model: view of children as active entities whose developmental paths represent a continuous, dynamic interplay between internal forces (nature) and external influences (nurture)  accounts for the complexity and diversity of human development - Mechanistic World View: view of children as passive entities whose developmental paths are primarily determined by external (environmental) influences  sees humans as machines and the sum of their parts  is preferred by learning theorists - Organismic World View: view of children as active entities whose developmental paths are primarily determined by forces from within themselves  sees humans as entities that are more complex than the sum of their parts  Is preferred by stage theorists - Most Developmentalists are theoretically eclectic:  They recognize that no single theory offers a totally adequate account for human development  Believe that each contribute importantly to our understanding Chapter 3: Hereditary Influences on Developmetn PRINCIPLES OF HEREDITARY TRANSMISSION - Genotype: genetic endowment that an individual inherits - Phenotype: the ways in which a person’s genotype is expressed in observable or measurable characteristics - Conception: the moment of fertilization, when a sperm penetrates an ovum, forming a zygote The Genetic Material - Zygote: a single cell formed at conception th  Is 1/20 the size of a pin that carries chromosomes - Chromosome: a threadlike structure made up of genes; in humans there are 46 chromosomes in the nucleus of each body cell  Each member of a pair corresponds to the other in size, shape and hereditary function - Genes: hereditary blueprints for development that are transmitted unchanged from generation to generation - DNA: long double stranded molecules that make up chromosomes Growth of the Zygote and Production of Body Cells - As zygote moves through the fallopian tubes towards the uterus, it begins to reproduce itself through Mitosis - Mitosis: the process in which a cell duplicates its chromosomes and then divides into 2 genetically identical daughter cells - Division of cells then proceeds, resulting in 2 new cells, each having 23 pairs of chromosomes The Germ (or Sex) Cells - Only cells the divide through meiosis - Meiosis: the process in which a germ cell divides producing gametes (sperm or ova) that each contain half of the parent cells original complement of chromosomes Production of Gametes Through Meiosis - First duplicate its 46 chromosomes - Crossing over then takes place - Crossing Over: adjacent duplicated chromosomes cross and break at one or more points along their length, exchanging segments of genetic material - Creates new and unique hereditary combinations Hereditary Uniqueness - Chance decides in which parent cell the chromosomes will end up in - Independent Assortment: the principle state that each pair of chromosomes segregates independently of all other chromosomes during meiosis - Humans have 23 chromosomes pairs 2 = 8 million plus possibilities Multiple Births - Twins can share the same genotype - Monozygotic Twins (identical): A zygote will split into separate but identical cells - Occur 1/250 births around the world - Because genetically identical, show very similar developmental progress if genes have much effect on human development - Dizygotic Twins(fraternal): result when a mother releases 2 ova at the same time and each is fertilized by different sperm - Even though born together, they have no more genes in common than normal siblings born at different times do Male or Female? - Sex is determined by the 23 paird - Male: XY - Female: XX - Sex is determined by the father NOT the mother What Do Genes Do? - Call for the production of amino acids which form enzymes and other proteins that are needed for the formation and functioning of new cells - Guide cell differentiation - Influence and influence the biochemical environment surrounding them during development - Regulate pace and timing of development - Environment affects the actions of genes at several different levels  Intracellular (surrounding the nucleus):molecular interaction  Extracellular (surrounding the cell):cellular  Extracellular (outside the body):organism-environment How Are Genes Expressed? Single- Gene Inheritance Patterns Simple Dominant- Recessive Inheritance - Allele: alternate forms of a gene that can appear at a certain site on the chromosome (one from mother, other from dad) - Simple Dominant-Recessive Inheritance: a pattern of inheritance in which one allele dominates another so that its phenotype is expressed - Dominant allele: a relatively powerful gene that is expressed phenotypically and masks the other gene - Recessive allele: a less powerful gene that isn’t expressed phenotypically when paired with the dominant allele - Homozygous: having inherited 2 alleles of an attribute that are identical in their effects - Heterozygous: having inherited 2 alleles for an attribute that have different effects - Carrier: a heterozygous individual who displays no sign of a recessive allele in his phenotype but can pass the gene to offspring Co-Dominance - Codominance: condition in which 2 heterozygous but equally powerful alleles produce a phenotype in which both genes are fully and equally expressed - Ie. Sickle-cell anemia Sex Linked Inheritance - Sex Linked Characteristic: determined by genes located on the sex chromosomes - Determined by a recessive gene that appears on the X chromosome - More likely in males as a result - Ie. Colour blindness Polygenic Inheritance - Polygenic Trait: a characteristic that is influences by the action of many genes rather than a single pair - Ie. Height, weight, intelligence, skin colour - As number of genes that contribute increases, the number of possible genotypes and phenotypes also increases HERIDITARY DISORDERS - Congenital Defect: a problem that is present (not necessarily apparent) at birth, such defects may stem from genetic and prenatal influences or from complications with the birth process - ie.Huntingtons Disease: caused by a dominant allele that typically appears later in life and causes the nervous system to degenerate Chromosomal Abnormalities 1/250 children are born with either 1 chromosome too may or too few Vast majority of chromosomal abnormalities are lethal Abnormalities with Sex Chromosome - turner’s syndrome (XO): 1/2500 females - poly X Syndrome (XXX,XXXX,XXXXX): 1/1000 females (sterile) - Klinefelters Syndrome (XXY,XXXY): 1/750 males (sterile) - Supermale Syndrome (XYY,XYYYY): 1/1000 males Abnormalities with Autosome - Autosome: the 22 pairs of human chromosomes that are identical in males and females - Most common abnormality occurs when an abnormal sperm or ovum carrying an extra autosome combines with a normal gamete - The extra chromosome appears with one of the 22 pairs to yield three chromosomes (trisomy) - Down syndrome:trisomy 21, in which the child inherits all or part of an extra 21 chromosome (average IQ is 55) Genetic Abnormalities - Some are caused by dominant alleles - Ie. Huntingtons disease - Mutations: a change in the chemical structure or arrangement of one or more genes that has the effect of producing a new phenotype - Can be induced by environmental hazards - Some recessive hereditary diseases  Cyctis fibrosis  Diabetes  Hemophelia  Sickle-cell anemia  Tay-sachs disease *all have prenatal detection Predicting, Detecting and Treating Hereditary Disorders Predicting Hereditary Disorders - Genetic counselling: is a service that helps prospective parents to assess the likelihood that their children with be free of hereditary defects - Refers to the prediction of both chromosomal and genetic abnormalities - Obtain a complete family history (pedigree) from each parent - DNA analyses from blood tests can now determine whether the parents are carriers of a gene for disorders Detecting Hereditary Disorders - Amniocentesis: a method of extracting amniotic fluid from a pregnant woman so that fetal body cells within the fluid cam be tested for chromosomal abnormalities and other genetic defects - Chronic Villus Sampling (CVS): an alternative in which fetal cells are extracted from the chorion for tests. Can be performed earlier in the pregnancy that is possible with amniocentresis - Ultrasound: method of detecting gross physical abnormalities by scanning the womb with sound waves producing a visual image of the fetus Treating Hereditary Disorders - Medical interventions such as special diets, fetal surgery, drugs and hormones, and gene replacement therapy can reduce harmful effects of many disorders - Phenylketonuria (PKU): body cant metabolize phenylalanine which can cause mental retardation if not treated Hereditary Influences on Behaviour - Behavioural Genetics: the study of how genes and environment contribute to individual variations in development - Although animals can be studied in selective breeding experiments: a method of studying genetic influences by determining whether traits can be bred in animals through selective mating Family Studies - Help us to estimate the extent to which various abilities and behaviours are influenced by the environment - Reveal that heritability influences intellectual performances, introversion, extroversion and empathetic concern - Predispositions for such disorders as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, neurotic disorders, alcoholism, etc - Behavioural geneticists must conduct family studies, often with twin designs(comparing twins of different zygosity) or adoption designs (compare adoptees with their real and adopted parents) - Kinship: the extent to which 2 individuals have genes in common Estimating the Contribution of Genes and Environment - Hereditary contributions to various attributes are estimated using concordance rates: the percentage of cases in which a certain attribute is present for one member of a twin pair if it is present in others - For continuous traits we can assume many values, behavioural geneticists estimate hereditary contributions by calculating the correlation coefficients - Also determine the amount of variability in a trait that is attributable to non-shared environmental influences and shared environmental influences Chapter 4: Prenatal Development, Birth, and Newborns’ Readiness for Life - Prenatal development: development that occurs between the moment of conception and the beginning of the birth process FROM CONCEPTION TO BIRTH - Divided into 3 major phases: period of the zygote, period of the embryo, period of the fetus Period of the Zygote - Period of the Zygote: first phase of development, lasting from conception until the developing organism becomes firmly attached to the wall if the uterus - Lasts 10-14 days - Zygote moves down fallopian tube towards uterus, divides by mitosis while moving - Cells form a ball- shaped structure: blastocyst  Contain 60-80 cells within 4 days of conception  Cell differentiation begins  Inner layer, embryonic disk becomes the Embryo  Outer layer turns into tissue that acts as a protective layer Implantation - 6-10 days after conception, small burr-like tendrils emerge from its outer surface - When at the uterus wall, tendrils burrow inward and tap into the mothers blood supply - ‘window of implantation’ during which the blastocyst must communicate (biologically) with the uterine wall, position itself, attach and invade - Takes 48 hours and happens 7-10 days after ovulation - Once implanted 10-14 days after conception, looks like a small blister on the wall - Half of the fertilized ova is implanted into the wall - ½ do not attach properly, are abnormal, or attach to a site that cannot sustain them - ¾ fail to survive the initial phase Development of Support Systems - Outer layer of blastocyst forms 4 main structures that protect and nourish the organism - Amnion: a watertight membrane that fills up with the fluids from mothers tissue (amniotic fluid)  surrounds the developing embryo,  regulate its temperature and cushion it against injuries  provide a weightless environment to make it easier for the embryo to move  has a yolk-shaped sac floating around inside that produces red blood cells until the embryo can make them itself - Chorion: the third membrane which surrounds the amnion and eventually becomes the lining for the placenta  Placenta: a multipurpose organ that provides for respiration, nourishment of the unborn child and the elimination of metabolic waste - Allantois: a fourth membrane that forms the umbilical cord: a soft tube containing blood vessels that connect the embryo to the placenta Purpose of the Placenta - Once developed, placenta is fed by blood vessels from mother to embryo - Hair-like villi act as a barrier prevents 2 blood streams from mixing - Barrier is semi-permeable (blood cells are too big to pass) - Maternal blood flowing into placenta brings oxygen and nutrients by the umbilical cord - Umbilical cord transports carbon dioxide and metabolic waste away from embryo and enter the blood stream of the mother Period of the Embryo rd th - Lasts from implantation ( the 3 week) through the 8 week of pregnancy - By the 3 week, the embryonic disk rapidly differentiates into 3 layers:  Ectoderm: becomes the nervous system, skin and hair  Mesoderm: becomes muscles, bones, circulatory system  endoderm : becomes digestive system, lungs, urinary system and other organs (ie. Pancreas, liver) rd - In 3 week after conception, a part of the ectoderm folds into a neural tube: becomes the brain and spinal cord th - By end of 4 week, heart has formed and begun to beat - Eyes, ears, nose, mouth also begin to form - Buds will become arms and legs appear - -6cm in size (10000 times the size of the zygote) The Second Month - Embryo becomes more human in appearance - Grows 1mm/ day - Primitive tail appears that soon becomes the tip of the back bone (coccyx) th - Middle of 5 week, eyes have cornea and lenses - 7 week, ears are well formed and there is a rudimentary skeleton - Limbs are developing upper arms appear first, then forearms, hands and fingers - Brain develops rapidly and directs organisms first muscular contractions by the end of this period th th - During 7 /8 weeks,  sexual development begins with the appearance of the genital ridge: indifferent gonad  If male, Y chromosome will instruct the formation of testes, women receive no instruction and just turn into ovaries  Circulatory system functions on its own  Spleen and liver produce the red blood cells - By end of second month, embryo is 2.5 cm long - Weighs less than 7.0 g Period of the Fetus - Fetus: name given to the prenatal organism from the 9 week until birth - Period of rapid growth and refinement of organs - Major organ systems begin to function - Moves, senses and behave (not intentionally) The Third Month - Organ systems continue to grow and become interconnected - Ie. Nervous system and muscle system, digestive and excretory system - Sexual differentiation is progressing rapidly - Male testes secrete testosterone (develops penis and scrotum) if hormone is absent, female genitalia form - By end of 3 month, sex can be detected - Fetus is 7.5 cm long - Weighs less than 28.0g th th The Second Trimester: 4 through 6 Month - 13 through 24 weekth - At 16 weeks, fetus is 20-25cm long and weighs 170g - Simple movements of tongue, lips, pharynx increase in complexity and coordination - Fetus begins to suck, swallow, munch, hiccup, cough, etc - Infants born prematurely have difficulty breathing - Begins kicking and can be felt by the mother - Heartbeat can be heard with a stethoscope - Hardening skull can be detected by ultrasound - 5 -6 month, nails harden, skin thickens, eyebrows, eyelashes and scalp hair appear - 20 weeks, sweat glands are functioning - Fetus is covered with a white cheesy substance, vernix: protects the skin from chapping - Lanugo: fine hair covering the fetus’ body that helps vernix stick to the skin - by end of the 6 month visual and auditory functions are working - 35-38 cm long - Weighs under 1kg th th The Third Trimester: The 7 through 9 Months - ‘finishing phase’ th - Fetus reaches an age of viability: point between 22nf and 28 week when survival outside the uterus is possible - Show better and more organized heart rate cycles, gross motor activity, and waking/sleeping patterns  nervous system is now developed enough for them to be able to survive if premature - Some fetus’ this young still need help breathing because their pulmonary alveoli (air sacs) are too immature to inflate and exchange oxygen on their own - By end of 7 month, fetus weighs over 1.8kg and is 40-43cm long th - 8 month, will be 46cm long - Gained weight comes from padding of fat deposited underneath the skin that helps insulate the baby from changes in temperature th - Middle of 9 month, sleep increases - So large that the most comfortable position is head- down posture with limbs curled - Woman’s uterus contracts and then relaxes process that tones the muscles, dilates the cervix and helps to position baby into the gap between the pelvic bones - As contractions becomes stronger and more frequent, prenatal period ends - Woman now enters labour ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES ON PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT Teratogens - Teratogen: refers to any disease, drug, or other environmental agent that can harm a developing embryo or fetus by causing physical deformities, blindness,, brain damage, or even death - Last has grown rapidly over the years - 95% of newborns are normal those born with defects are usually mild, temporary or reversible - Principles about the effects of Teratogens:  Effects on a body part or organ system are worst during the period when that structure is forming and growing most rapidly  Each organ has a period of sensitivity during which it is most susceptible (week 3-8)  Nervous system can be damaged at any point throughout the pregnancy  Not all embryos are equally affected by Teratogens influenced by genetic makeup and quality of the prenatal environment  Same defect can be caused by different Teratogens  Many defects can be caused by a single teratogen  The longer the exposure to or a higher dose, the more likely serious harm will be done  Embryos and fetuses can be affected by fathers’ as well as by pregnant mother’s exposure to some teratogens  Long term effects depend on quality of the postnatal environment  Some teratogens cause ‘sleeper effects’ that may not be apparent until later in life - Can have subtle effects on babies’ behaviour Maternal Diseases - Agents capable of passing the placental barrier Rubella - Founded in 1941 by Australian physician, McAllister Gregg - Aka German measles - Mothers that had rubella delivered blind babies - Other defects include deafness, cardiac abnormalities and metal retardation - Most dangerous during the 1 trimester - 60-85% of babies whose mothers had rubella in the first trimester were born with birth defects Other Infectious Disease - Taxoplasmosis: disease caused by parasite found in raw meat and cat feces; can cause birth defects if transmitted to embryo in the 1 trimester and miscarriage later in pregnancy - Produces cold-like symptoms in adults - Can cause severe eye and brain damage Sexually Transmitted Diseases - Capable of producing serious birth defects - 3 are especially hazardous:  Syphilis: harmful in middle to later stages but can be detected by blood tests and treated with antibiotics  Genital herpes: infections occur at birth when baby comes in contact with the lesions, there is no cure  AIDS: transmitted to offspring through placenta, at birth or through breast milk Drugs The Thalidomide Tragedy - Thalidomide was given over the counter to treat morning sickness st - Treated nausea and vomiting that normally occurs in the 1 trimester - Was safe when tested on pregnant rats assumed it would be safe for people too - Defects: badly deformed eyes, ears, nose, and hearts and phocomelia: structural abnormality where all or parts of the limbs are missing and the feet or hands would be attached directly at the torso - Taken around 21 day after conception no ears th th - 25 -27 day  deformed/ lack of arms - 28 -36 daydeformed/lack of legs th - 40 day baby had no affect Other Common Drugs - 60% of women are on prescription medication or OTC drug when pregnant - Heavy use of aspirin fetal growth retardation, poor motor control, infant death rd - Ibuprofen in 3 trimester increases risk of a prolonged delivery and pulmonary hypertension in newborns - Heavy caffeine consumptionmiscarriage low birth weight st - Antidepressants with lithium heart defects when taken in 1 trimester - Medications containing sex hormones(ie. The pill)increased risk for heart defects Alcohol - Compromises the function of the placenta - 2 disorders caused by prenatal alcohol consumption - Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS): group of serious congenital problems indicated by the presence of both physical and neurobehavioral defects - Fetal Alcohol Effects(FAE): now referred to as alcohol related neurodevelopmental disorder (ARND) is a group of mild congenital problems with physical characteristics absent - Commonly children will have small heads and malformations of the heart, limbs, joints, and face - Widely spaced eyes, flattened nose, underdeveloped upper lip - Can affect the male reproductive system leading to reduced sperm motility and count - Children with alcoholic fathers usually have a lower birth weight Cigarette Smoking - Cleft lip: a congenital disorder in which the upper lip has a vertical (or pair of vertical) openings or grooves - Cleft palate: a congenital disorder in which the roof of the mouth doesn’t close properly during embryonic development, resulting in an opening or groove in the roof of the mouth - Nicotine reduces the amount of oxygen in the bloodstream less oxygen going to the baby Illicit Drugs - Usually exposed to cocaine - Cognitive and behavioural defects - Marijuana usechanges in functioning of the basal nucleus in the amygdale (regulates emotion)  Usually effects boys more  Tremors, sleep disturbances, lack of interest with their surroundings nd - Later use causes lower reading comprehension and under achievement (2 trimester smoking) - More likely to miscarry with any illicit drug Environmental Hazards - Include chemicals in the environment that a pregnant woman can’t control and may not be aware of - Radiation - Chemicals and pollutants Maternal Characteristics - Diet, emotional well-being and age can have affects on the outcome of her pregnancy The Mother’s Diet - Recommended to have a high protein and calorie died - Gain up to 11-14 kg - Severe malnutrition stunts prenatal growth and underweight babies  1 trimester malnutrition disrupts formation of spinal cord and induced miscarriages rd  3 trimesterlow birth weight babies with small heads - Magnesium and zinc can increase the functioning of the placenta - Iodine insures normal thyroid functioning - Cretinism: result of the mother having insufficient iodine, aka congenital hypothyroidism (is irreversible mental retardation) - Folic acid: B- complex vitamin that help to prevent defects in the CNSimportant to take from conception to the 8 week of pregnancy - Spina bifida: a bulging of the spinal cord through a gap in the spinal column (prevented by taking folic acid) - Anencephaly: defect in which the brain and neural tube fail to develop or develop incompletely and the skull doesn’t close - Too much vitamin A can cause birth defects The Mother’s Emotional Well-Being - When pregnant women become aroused, their glands excrete powerful hormones such as adrenaline - Hormones can cross the placenta barrier and increase the fetus’ motor activity - Prolonged and severe emotional stress can stunt prenatal growth, cause premature delivery, low birth weight, decreased fetal motor activity - Can also be highly active and irritable, irregular in their feedings, sleeping patterns and bowel habits - Related to increased level of cortisol The Mother’s Age - Safest time to bear children in between 16-35 - Neonate: a newborn infant from birth to 1 month old CHILDBIRTH AND THE PERINATAL ENVIRONMENT - Perinatal environment: environment surrounding birth The Birth Process - 3 stage process:  1sr stage of labour: starts with uterine contractions every 10-15 minutes and ends when the cervix is fully dilated  Phase lasts 8-14 hours for 1stborn children  3-8 hours for later-borns  2 stage of labour: aka delivery, begins as the fetus’ head passes through cervix into the vagina and ends when the baby emerges  May be asked to push during contractions  Quick delivery ½ hour  Long delivery last longer  3 stage of labour: aka afterbirth,  5-10 minutes  Uterus contracts to expel placenta The Baby’s Experience The Baby’s Appearance - Often born bluish from oxygen deprivation during birthing - Flattened nose and bruises from passing through the cervix and birth canal - 50cm long - 3-3.5 kg in weight Assessing the Baby’s Condition - Look at 5 standard characteristics:  Heart rate  Respiratory effort  Muscle tone  Colour  Reflex irritability - Rated from 0-2 on a chart and totalled Apgar test (0-10 scale)  Often repeated after 10 minutes to measure improvement  7+ are in good condition  4,<4 are in distress and need immediate medical attention - Neonatal Behavioural Assessment Scale (NBAS): subtle measure of a baby’s behavioural repertoire and neurological well-being  Given a few days after birth  Assess strength of 20 inborn reflexes, changes in infant’s state and reactions to comforting and social stimuli  Low score indicates brain damage Labour and Delivery Medication - Analgesics and anesthetics to reduce pain - Sedatives to relax mother - Stimulants to induce or intensify contraction - Medications cross the placenta and heavy does can make the baby lethargic and inattentive - Infants of heavily medicated mothers smile infrequently and are highly irritable when aroused, difficult to feed as well Natural and Prepared Childbirth - Based on the idea that childbirth is a natural process rather than a painful ordeal - Can reduce maternal stress and medications - Home births are just as safe as hospital ones, if there is a doctor or midwife present and the mother is healthy - Mother’s experience emotional bonding with their babies - Fathers become engrossed with the newborns - A lack of support from partner can lead to postpartum depression and a poor mother-infant relationship Birth Complications - Anoxia: birth complication that can cause brain damage and other defects (ie. Cerebral palsy)  Mild anoxia usually has no long term effects  Women who abuse alcohol and drugs or receive poor prenatal care risk delivering preterm or low birth weight babies - Breech birth: a position in which the fetus emerges feet first or buttocks first  Often delivered by caesarean section to protect against anoxia - RH Factor: a blood protein that when present in the fetus but not the mother, can cause the mother to produce antibodies that may attack the red blood cells of the fetus - Small for Date: babies far below the normal birth weight,usually have more severe and longer lasting problems than preterm infants  Interventions to stimulate these infan
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