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Chapter 1-9

developmental psychology I notes chapters 1-9.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PS275
Professor
Colleen Loomis
Semester
Fall

Description
The Development of Number and Arithmetic Skills - These skills are innate, very young children are able to quantify things (big small, long, short) Early arithmetic strategies - By the age of 3-4 most children can count - Cardinality: the understanding that the last number in a sequence is representative of the number of objects being counted (achieved at 4 or 5) Development of Mental Arithmetic - Begins with sum and min. - The complexity develops with age, new techniques are added such as decomposition strategy or fact retrieval Math Disabilities - Early identification, usually related to procedural skills or memory retrieval Cultural Influences on Mathematic Performance - Cultural differences are evident as early as grade 1, an only increase with age - Due to different linguistics it may be easier for Asian countries, because their numbers may be spoken faster, and therefor remembered more easily - The English numbers are irregular compared to others with 10 based numbers Memory: Retaining and Retrieving Information Memory Development in Infancy - Habituation / dishabituation paradigms, we can tell that an infant recognizes that the picture before is the same or different, based on the amount of time they spend looking at the picture, the more they see the same picture, the less interested they become, but when a new picture is shown they look at it longer - Operant Conditioning: when kicking results in a positive outcome such as a mobile moving, when they see the mobile again will they recall? - Deferred imitation tasks: a novel action sequence is presented, waiting for replication, this is linked to the maturation of the hippocampus, prefrontal lobe and the temporal lobe Information Flow and the Multistore Model - Information enters through sensory registers (each sense is separate) - These registers hold large amounts of information for very brief periods of time - If this information is not attended to right away, it disappears within less than a second - If it is attended to it goes to the short-term (working memory) store which has limited space (between 5 and 9 pieces of information) - New information is operated on while short-term memories are passed to long-term store, which is vast, and relatively permanent - In order for information to go from short to long-term memory it must be actively processed also known as the executive control process - Metacognition: an individuals knowledge of their own cognitive abilities and processes Developmental differences in Hardware: Information processing capacity - A 3 year old can recall 3 digits, the number increases generally by 1 per year until 7 years - Increased myelinization of neurons and pruning of unnecessary neural synapses help older children execute cognitive operations more quickly - The speed of articulation helps how quickly you can process into short term memory Developmental Differences in Software: Strategies and Knowledge of Thinking - Younger children are capable of using more advanced strategies however they cannot come up with the strategies on their own - New strategies may often seem more inefficient initially, this is due more to inefficiency of utilization strategy as opposed production deficiency - There are 3 reasons why this happens 1. New strategies take up a lot of cognitive capacity 2. They may seem very fun, children may be distracted 3. Metacognition is not apparent in young children, they may not realize that the method isnt being done properly - Implicit cognition vs. thought without awareness Piagets Theory of Cognitive Development What is Intelligence? Piaget defined intelligence as a basic life functioning that helps organisms adapt to their environment. - Intellectual activity occurs to produce cognitive equilibrium among thought processes and environment - This equilibrium is achieved through equilibration How we Gain Knowledge: Cognitive Schemes and Cognitive Processes - Schemes: mental structures to understand all that is around us - Organizing: combining existing schemes into more complex structures - Adaptation: process of adjusting to the environment, which occurs through assimilation and accommodation - Assimilation: interpreting the world through schemes, and adding new information to preexisting schemes to make sense of what is around us - Accommodation: when new information cannot be assimilated due to contradictions and the scheme must be modified Piagets stages of cognitive development Age Stage Description 0-2 Sensorimotor - Infants use sensory and limited motor skills to understand the world, they initially only have innate reflexes, by the end of this period they have complex sensorimotor coordination - They have only a vague sense of self and others, and are just beginning to understand objects exist when they are out of sight 2-7 Preoperational - Use language and images to represent and understand various aspects, thought is egocentric - They become imaginative in their play, begin to recognize not everyone sees from their perspective 7-11/12 Concrete - Children acquire and use cognitive operations (beginning of logical operations thought) - No longer fooled by appearances, children can cognitively realize 11- Formal operations - Are able to think about thinking, thought is systematic and abstract onward - May become more idealistic due to newfound ability to think about hypothetical things Early Controversies about Sensory and Perceptual Development - Sensation: the process in which sensory receptor neurons detect information and transmit that information to the brain - Perception: the process of interpreting the sensory input Nature vs. Nurture - Most developmentalists recognize that a newborns perception is limited, both maturational and learning contribute to the growth of perceptual awareness Enrichment vs. Differentiation - Enrichment theory claims that cognition enhances sensory experience - Differentiation theory claims that we always have the information we need to differentiate what we see, we just may not have the cognitive ability to do soResearcher Methods used to Study the Infants Sensory and Perceptual Experiences Preference method - Two stimuli are presented and researchers note which, or if either of the stimulus the infant attends to - Habituation: occurs when the stimulus becomes too familiar, and elicits less of a response - When this happens a new stimulus replaces one of the old ones, to see if it elicits a renewed reaction - If a renewed reaction does occur then the infant is able to detect the difference - It is difficult to tell sometimes whether reactions occur due to preference or habitation Method of Evoked Potentials - Evoked Potentials (brain waves) - The brainwave patters are used to assess sensory perceptual capabilities - If the stimuli is not noticed or the infant is indifferent to it, the brainwaves will remain the same - If the stimuli does elicit a reaction then the brain waves change High-Amplitude Sucking Method - There is a baseline sucking rate established - When an increase occurs, a sensory stimulus is introduced - If the infant is interested by the stimulus the sucking would continue at the faster rate - When the interest rate decreases the sucking will also decrease, and the stimulus will disappear Basic Learning Processes - A permanent change in behavior, not a temporary behavior Habituation: Early Evidence of Information Processing an
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