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PS277 (1)
Chapter 2


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Diane Glebe

Page 2 Footnote 1 How does this apply to humans? Is there enough biological similarity between hibernating mammals and humans to use this as effective evidence? whether the number of calories one eats has an influence on aging. Page 3 controlled experimental evidence with humans is lacking, Okinawans, who eat only 60% of the normal Japanese diet, have 40 times as many centenarians Okinawan incidence of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancer is half that of the rest of Japan hormonal regulatory system's adap¬ tation to stress stress per se does not cause aging, body's ability to deal with it undergoes significant decline with age. we still do not know enough about the connection between the experience of stress, its effects on the immune system, and subsequent disease Cellular Theories Definiton: Cells grown in laboratory culture dishes undergo only a fixed number of divisions before dying, the number of possible divisions dropping depending on the age of the donor organism; Hayflick limit. Evidence suggests that the tips of the chromosomes, called telomeres, play a major role telomerase is needed in DNA replication to fully replicate the telomeres. telomerase normally is not present in cells, Page 4 Definiton: cross-linking, certain proteins in human cells interact randomly and produce mole¬ cules that are linked in such a way as to make the body stiffer proteins make up roughly one-third protein in the body, collagen. this process is important to remember in the treatment of diseases such as hypertension. cross-linking by itself is not an adequate explanation of aging, significant effect on health and functioning in later life. Definiton: free radicals, highly reactive chemicals produced randomly in normal metabolism free radicals may cause cellular damage, in turn impairs the functioning Definiton: antioxidants, prevent oxygen from combining with susceptible molecules to form free radicals. ingesting antioxidants postpones the appearance of age-related diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, and immune system dysfunction no evidence that taking antioxidants actually increases the life span What if aging were programmed into our genetic code? cell death now believe that such losses may be part of a master genetic program Programmed cell death appears to be a function of physiological processes, innate ability of cells to self-destruct, ability of dying cells to trigger key processes in other cells. It is possible the changes we examine throughout this text are the result of a genetic program. Page 5 Implications of the Developmental Forces the biological the¬ ories provide ways to describe the biological forces. integrate the biologi¬ cal forces with the psychological, sociocultural, and life-cycle forces. changes in body systems and diseases are influenced by these other factors. diagnosis and treatment of health-related concerns must also include many perspectives. results of all these examinations must be placed in the context of the overall life span. Page 6 how we feel about aging; positive feelings about the signs of aging are related to positive self-esteem. How easily we move our changing bodies in the physical environment If we cannot get around, we must depend on others, which lowers our self-esteem and sense of compe¬ tence. Changes in Skin, Hair, and Voice Wrinkling four-step process First, outer layer of skin becomes thinner Second, collagen fibres lose much of their flexibility, Third, elastin fibres in the middle layer of skin lose their ability to keep the skin stretched out, Finally, underlying layer of fat, diminishes. A major cause of wrinkles is exposure to ultraviolet rays from the sun older adults' skin thinner and drier, makes it less effective at regulating heat or cold, makes it more susceptible to cuts, bruises, and blisters. Page 7 colouring of light-skinned people undergoes additional changes with age. Changes in the Hair. Gradual thinning and grey¬ ing of the hair of both men and women occur inevitably with age, Men usually do not lose facial hair Changes in the Voice. Age-related changes in one's voice include lowering of pitch, increased breathlessness and trembling, slower and less precise pronunciation, and decreased volume. changes in the larynx and the respiratory system cause of these changes Changes in Body Build Two changes especially visible a decrease in height fluctuations in weight. Weight gain in middle age followed by weight loss in later life is common. men, weight gain tends to be around the abdomen, women, weight gain tends to be around the hips, differences may be caused by changes in lifestyle and dietary habits. Page 8 Muscles. amount of muscle tissue in our bodies declines with age, age 70 the loss is no more than 20%. rate of change increases. age 80 the loss in strength is up to 40%, muscle endurance also diminishes with age but at a slower rate. men in later life continue to show greater muscle strength overall than do women, Bones. Normal aging is accom¬ panied by the loss of bone tissue throughout the body. The gender difference in bone loss is important. women lose bone mass approximately twice as fast as men. less bone mass depletion of estrogen speeds up bone loss. bone changes cause age-related increase likelihood of fractures hollow, porous bones break more easily. more likely to be clean fractures that are difficult to heal. Definitonosteoporosis, Definitonloss of bone mass and increased porosity create bones that resemble laced honeycombs. Page 9 Osteoporosis leading cause of broken bones in older women appears more often in fair-skinned, thin, and smallframed women of European descent the ability to engage in meaningful leisure activities added to the well-being of older women with osteoporosis Page 10 relationship between dietary calcium intake and osteoporosis is controversial some evidence calcium supple¬ ments after menopause slow the rate of bone loss bene¬ fits depend on the type of supplementa¬ tion calcium citrate more effective effects of supplementation greater before menopause estrogen deple¬ tion affects bone loss not fully understood, indirect no estrogen receptors in bone tissue. estrogen therapy must be continued indefinitely because bone loss speeds up as soon as the therapy is stopped. Joints. protective cartilage in joints shows signs of deterioration, Definitonosteoarthritis, Definitondisease marked by gradual onset and progression of pain and disability, with minor signs of inflammation noticeable in late middle age osteoarthritis is a wear-and-tear disease. usually affects the hands, spine, hips, and knees, Page 11 Definitonrheumatoid arthritis, Definitonmore destructive disease of the joints that also develops slowly and typically affects dif¬ ferent joints and causes different types of pain than osteoarthritis pattern of morning stiffness and aching develops in the fingers, wrists, and ankles on both sides symptoms often come and go in repeating patterns. Psychological Implications appearance of wrinkles, grey hair, fat, and the like can have major effects on a person's selfconcept many women use any available means to compensate for these changes. at some point everyone takes on a distinctly old appearance. Losses in strength and endurance in old age have much the same psychological effects as changes in appearance can prove embarrassing and stress¬ ful. older adults get stronger at the same rate as younger adults. changes in the joints, can severely limit move¬ ment, reducing independence joint pain is very difficult to ignore or disguise, older adults use a wide range of adaptive behaviours to cope. For all fractures, the recovery period is much longer than that for a younger adult. Page 12 Vision one of the first noticeable signs of aging, normative, age-related changes have profound and pervasive effects on people's everyday lives Structural Changes in the Eye. decrease in the amount of light that passes through the eye, need for more light to do tasks such as reading. our ability to adjust to changes in illumination, declines. time it takes for both types of adaptation increases with age lens becomes more yellow, causing poorer colour discrimination lens's ability to adjust and focus declines the time our eyes need to change focus from near to far increases Page 13 some people experience diseases caused by abnormal struc¬ tural changes. Retinal Changes. second major family of changes changes in the retina. Macular degeneration involves the progressive and irre¬ versible destruction of receptors from any of a number of causes. loss of the ability to see details; Roughly 1 in 5 people over age 75, especially smokers and women, have macular degen¬ eration, leading cause of functional blindness in older adults. Definitonthe ability to see detail and to discriminate different visual patterns, Definitonacuity, acuity is especially noticeable at low light levels Psychological Effects of Visual Changes. age-related changes in vision affect every aspect of older adults' daily lives. some of the universal changes, can be corrected easily Page 14 Older adults may also have trouble seeing some fine facial details. Some may react to these changes by simply avoiding the kitchen or listening to their favourite music, or avoid social contact out of fear 1996a).Visual prob¬ lems also increase vulnerability to falls Hearing one of the most wellknown normative changes with age Loud noise is the enemy of hearing at any age. you can do serious damage to your hearing with short exposure too. Definitonreduced sensitivity to high-pitched tones, Definitonpresbycusis, Definitonoccurs earlier and more severely than the loss ofsensitivity to low-pitched tones Page 15 Men typically have greater loss than women, may be because of differential exposure gradual at first but accelerates during the 40s, Presbycusis results from four types of changes in the inner ear sensory, neural, metabolic, Page 16 mechanical, hearing major role in social communication, progressive loss could have an equally important effect on social adjustment. can cause numerous adverse emotional reactions, may negatively affect how they feel about interpersonal communication. hearing impairment is under-diagnosed in older adults. technology continues to improve, none of these devices can duplicate our original equipment, Page 17 Somesthesia. it takes more pressure with age to feel a touch on the smooth skin touch sensitivity in the hair-covered parts of the body is maintained into later life Older adults often report that they have more trouble regulating body temperature so that they feel comfortable. pain is not well assessed, diagnosed, or managed in older adults particular challenge is the assessment of pain in people with cognitive impairment. Definitonsense of body position, Definitonkinesthesis. Definitoninvolves sensory feedback about two kinds of movements: DefinitonPassive movements Definitoninstigated by something (or someone) else, DefinitonActive movement Definitonvoluntary, as in walking. Losing bodily sensations can have major implications; loss of sexual sensitivity and changes in the ability to regulate one's body temperature affect the quality of life. How a person views these changes is critical for maintaining self-esteem. Balance. We get informa¬ tion about balance from the vestibular syst
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