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Chapter 2

PS280-Chapter 2 Lecture Notes.doc

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Wilfrid Laurier University
John Stephens

1PS280 Abnormal Psychology Lecture NotesChapter 2 Current Paradigms and the Role of Cultural FactorsList of 5 paradigms help to explain and make sense of the data infront of us We have different lenses of how we look at data way of ordering our information way of filtering what we see set of beliefs that shape perception What is a ParadigmA model of reality the way reality is or is suppose to beoIt is a set of beliefs that shape our perception of events and help us explain these eventsoIt is a set of concepts and methods used to collect and interpret dataA paradigm guides the definition examination and treatment of mental disordersSomewhere between a hypothesis and a theory is a paradigm It guides our definition of mental disorders how to make sense of it all Paradigms in Abnormal Psychology Biological paradigm oSome conditions are highly biologically based CognitiveBehavioural paradigmoBehavioural PerspectiveoCognitive PerspectivePsychoanalytic ParadigmHumanisticExistential ParadigmoPhilosophical view less favourable kind of simplisticIntegrative ParadigmThe Biological ParadigmContinuation of the somatogenic hypothesisoMental disorders caused by aberrant abnormal or defective biological processesoOften referred to as the medical model or disease modelThe dominant paradigm in Canada elsewhere from the late 1800s until middle thof the 20centuryBeginning to build a picture of what abnormaldefective biological processes meansthe cell levelLots of support bit by bit you can get much better at gathering the data because of higher technological advancesIt is a renaissance right now because of our ability to have a lot more acuity ex always knew what schizophrenia was but now we have a much better understanding of itBehaviour GeneticsStudy of individual differences in behaviour attributable to difference in genetic makeupGenotypeunobservable genetic constitution 2oFixed at birth but it should not be viewed as a static entityPhenotypetotality of observable behavioural characteristics oChanged overtime product of an interaction between genotype and environmentMethods of ResearchoFamily method index cases or probands studying genetics within immediate family oTwin method concordance ratesTwin studies in the past were obscene twins were separated at birthJoy to researchers you could study twins and the differences in nature vs nurture Measured concordance rates map brain activity using EEG results indicated twins had a very high concordance rate reared together or apart If they were monozygotic twins they display direct concordance Reconnecting twins 20 years later even if reared in different countries still displayed concordance rates in behaviour as well as genetics oAdoptees method Molecular GeneticsTries to specify particular genes involved in the precise functions of target genes o48 chromosomes 23 pairs thousands of genes per chromosome Alleleany one of several DNA codingsthat occupy the same position or location on a chromosome oPersons genotype is his or her set of alleles Genetic Polymorphism oInvolves differences in the DNA sequence that can manifest in different formsoEntails mutations in a chromosome that can be induced or naturally occurringLinkage AnalysisoMethod in molecular genetics that is used to study people oTypically study families in which a disorder is heavily concentrates genetic markersoA way to make sense of certain markers that will predictive of later maladiesoEx Parkinsons disease increased probability you will have to deal with it later in your life GeneEnvironment Interactions The Nervous SystemThe nervous system is composed of billions of neuronsEach neuron has 4 major partso1 The cell bodyo2 Several dendrites
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