Textbook Notes (369,137)
Canada (162,407)
Psychology (1,978)
PS280 (52)
Chapter 5

PS280-Chapter 5 Lecture Notes.doc

7 Pages

Course Code
John Stephens

This preview shows pages 1 and half of page 2. Sign up to view the full 7 pages of the document.
1 PS280: Abnormal Psychology Lecture Notes Chapter 5: Research Methods in the Study of Abnormal Behaviour Chapter Outline · Science and Scientific Method 1. Testability and Replicability  Replicability: can we replicate this study and acquire the same results  Need confidence that the study has generalizability  See if you can get the same results with a different style study in a different setting • Therefore assume that the results are valid 2. The Role of Theory  Looking for commonality that links two aspects of a study (IV and DV)  Gives a sense of how you can explain data in a broader context · Research Methods 1. The Case Study 5. Single-Subject Experimental 2. Epidemiological Research Research 3. The Correlational Method 6. Mixed Designs 4. The Experiment 7. Meta-Analysis Science and Scientific Methods · Science: The pursuit of systematized knowledge through observation o Systematize the way you look at information, how you interpret it o Connecting the data in-front of you · Testability and Replicability o A hypothesis must be agreeable to systematic testing that could prove it to be false o Hypothesis: Expectations about what should occur if a theory is true  A lot of clinical work is simply about hypotheses  Ex. a patient comes to your door asking for help, you create a hypotheses about his disorders, want to test that hypotheses to see if it is valid (if not create a new one) · Developing expectations about your client; understand the client · The Role of Theory o Primary goal of science is to advance theories o Theory: a set of propositions meant to explain a class phenomena Research Methods 1. Case Study · The detailed study of one individual, based on a paradigm o Detailed information about the persons personal, social, and occupational life (+ others) · Providing Detailed Descriptions 2 o Collecting historical biographical information; validity of info is sometimes questionable o Often includes details of therapy sessions; much more detail than any other method o Several case studies can be compared/analyzed for common elements through a specific method · The Case Study as Evidence o Particularly useful to counteract a universal theory or law; prove it to be incorrect because of an individual who does not show the same symptoms refined by the law o Do not provide the means to rule out alternative hypotheses; must take into account other factors, therefore cannot assume it was your hypothesis that lead to changes in behaviour · Generating Hypothesis o Exposure to a large number of cases may allow the clinicians to notice similarities of circumstances and outcomes · When generating case studies, must be cautious because you can’t generalize; some cases are so unique it is impossible to generalize them to other with the same disorder o Stepping stone for later hypotheses 2. Epidemiological Research · Epidemiology: study of frequency and distribution of a disorder in a population o Data gathered about rates of a disorder and its possible correlates in a large sample or population o Provides a general picture of a disorder; how many people it affects, it is more common in men or women · Focuses on determining 3 features of a disorder o 1. Prevalence: Proportion of a population that has the disorder at a given point or period of time  There are always alternative explanations or hypotheses to explain various disorders  Prevalence relies a lot on memory (reflective memory), not always accurate o 2. Incidence: Number of new cases of the disorder that occur in some period (usually a year)  How many people in a year are diagnosed with a certain disorder o 3. Risk factors: Conditions or variables that, if present, increases the likelihood of developing the disorder  Environment plays a crucial role in risk factors; Ex. living near factories inhaling toxins, sometimes disrupt the body, cause health problems 3. Correlational Method 3 · Measures if there is a relationship between/among 2 or more variables · Variables being measured as they exist in their natural setting Measuring Correlations · 1. Correlation Coefficient (r) o May take any value between +1 to -1 o Measures magnitude and direction of relationship (+ or -) o With a large population, a correlation of 7 (+ or -) is very good o The ↑ the population the ↓ the coefficient (to be significant) o Correlations move in concordance with another variable; as X ↑ Y ↑, and as X ↓ Y ↓ · 2. Statistical Significance o Refers to the likelihood that results of an investigation are due to chance o A statistically significant correlation is one that is NOT due to chance o If probability = 0.5 (5 out of a 100) it is considered significant o Works in concordance with Correlation Coefficient; if CC increases (closer to +1.00 or -1.00) then the study is likely to be significant Applications to Psychopathology · Problems of Causality (CANNOT assume correlation = causation) o A sizeable correlation between two variables only tells us that they are related, don’t know which is the cause and which is the effect (if it even exists) · Critical Drawbacks of Correlational Research o Does not allow determination of cause-effect relationships o Correlation between two variables tells us only that they are related or tend to co-vary with each · Directionality problem o How can we tell which is the cause and which is the effect? o Frequently only make inferences from one direction, don’t see the other variables only see what is right in front of us, that data we collected (often ignore environmental aspects) o Correlation does not imply causation o Prospective, longitudinal design helps resolve the directionality issue  Based on the idea that causes must precede effects o High risk method also overcomes the problem of directionality o High-risk method: individuals with a predisposition (to a certain disorder) are studied  Gives researcher an opportunity to study cause and effect 4  Ex. Studying environmental factors that lead depressed patients to more frequently have their next depressed episode · Third-Variable Problem (e
More Less
Unlock Document

Only pages 1 and half of page 2 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.