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Chapter 5

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Department
Psychology
Course
PS282
Professor
Colleen Loomis
Semester
Winter

Description
Chapter 5: Understanding Individuals Within Environments 4 Ecological Principles (Kelly’s Principles) (Examine social environments and their physical settings) Provide distinctive, useful concepts for describing the dynamics of social environments  Interdependence o Social systems have multiple related parts and multiple relationships with other systems. Changes in one of the parts can affect others, they are interdependent  Public school, interdependent components include: students, teachers, administrators, secretaries, janitors and other staff, parents, board members etc  Cycling of Resources o Any system can be understood by examining how resources are used, distributed, conserved and transformed o Personal resources: individual talent, knowledge, experiences, strengths or other settings that can address challenges in a setting o Social resources: occur in relationships among members or the setting, including shared beliefs, values, formal rules, informal norms, group events and shared sense of community o Physical aspects of the setting are resources: library with rooms for group study, quiet nooks for individual study o Resources important for a family: time, nurturance, attention, emotional support and money  By examining the availability and use of resources, one can begin to characterize family priorities and connections  Adaption o Transactions between person and environment o Two-way process; individuals cope with the constraints or demands of an environment, and environments adapt to their members o Example: adapting to your first job; Learned new skills without losing unique identity, changes in appearance, changes in relating to people or changes in schedules. Environments also adapt to their members- changes in a family triggered by events like, birth of a child, parent starting new job, child moving away from home o At a higher level: an organization that does not respond to the needs of its members will find it difficult to retain member involvement or attract new members  Succession o Settings and social systems change over time o Investigate what has been successful and what has not Social Climate Dimensions Understanding environments emphasizes how people experience and understand settings  Relationships (Moos) o Classroom Environment Scale: measures high school classroom environments, constrains subscales on the extent to which’s students are involved in and participate in class, the extent of affiliation o friendship they report among classmates, and the amount of support they perceive form the teacher o Family Environment Scale: includes subscales on how cohesive and how expressive the members perceive their family to be and the extent of conflict they perceive. Co worker cohesion and supervisor support can be measured in work settings  Personal Development o Whether individuals autonomy, growth and skill development are fostered in the settings o Ward Assessment Scale: subscale about how much a psychiatric treatment ward focuses on helping patients address their particular health needs o Classroom Environment Scale: subscale on competition among students o Family Environment Scale: subscales concerning the independence accorded individual family members and the family’s emphasis on achievement, intellectual-cultural pursuits, recreation and moral-religious concerns o Related to Kelly’s principle of Adaption  System Maintenance and Change o Settings’ emphasis on order, clarity of rules and expectations, and control of behavior o Classroom Environment Scale: subscales concerning the extent to which class activities are organized and orderly, the clarity of rules, the strictness of the teacher, and the extent to which innovative activities and thinking are welcomed (Moos & Trickett) o Ward Assessment Scale: examines who makes decisions in health care unite and whether rules are explicit o Family Environment Scale (Moos): extent of control exerted by parents Social Regularities  Settings typically create predictable relationships among their members and those qualities persist over time regardless of the individuals involved.  Edward Seidman: proposed that settings be understood in terms of these social regularities  Example of Social Regularity: Who asks most of the question in a university classroom? If you answer is the teacher, you have then noticed a social regularity Contributions & Limitations  Offers a way of understanding why it often seems that the more things change in a setting, the more they remain the same o If settings change the actors (i.e., principle in a school) but not the fundamental social regularities of how a school functions and who makes decision it will only promote first order change Barker’s Ecological Psychological  Developed to study social behavior in everyday context  Proposed the concept of behavior setting, comprised of a physical place, time and program or standing pattern of behavior  Behavior setting: have program circuits, agendas for the setting and goal circuits to satisfy individual needs o Vetoing circuits to exclude some persons o Deviation-countering circuits to teach individuals the skills needed to participate in the setting Baker: Under populated and optimally populated settings  Optimally populated settings: engage only some persons by using vetoing circuits to exclude others  Under populated settings require participation from many inhabitants to fill needed roles and thus contribute to greater skill development and mutual commitment  They develop skills and involvement with deviation-countering circuits rather than vetoing O’Donnell: Activity Setting  Takes subjective experiences of settings participants into account more behavior setting concepts  Activity settings are based on inter subjectivities or shared assumptions and meanings among partici
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