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Chapter 9

Community Chapter 9.docx

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Colleen Loomis

PS282- Community Psychology Sept 10, 2012 Bio-psycho-social model  Level of analysis o Individual o Micro o Meso o Macro Laurier Bubble  Students don’t venture out past a few blocks of campus o Want to burst the bubble, can do so with Practicum  Community Partner  CSL Placement  Learning  Empathy  Reflecting  Reciprocity  Able to reflect on Learning  Stereotypes  Experimental Learning Week 2: Prevention & Promotion (Chapter 9) Level of Analysis 1. Macrosystems: cultures, government, mass media, societies 2. Localities: cities, neighborhoods, towns 3. Organizations: schools, local businesses, religious congregation 4. Microsystems: families, friends, classroom First Order Change: “the more things change the more things stay the same” Second Order Change: programs that include a focus on changes in setting and communities including changes in formal policies & specific practices and developing resources for positive development Community Psychology Developmental Individual Individual Family Microsystems Organization External Localities Macrosystems Macrosystems Public Health & Community Psychology  The Broad Street Pump o 1854- cholera epidemic in London England o Commonly believed that it spread through miasma (bad air) o The mystery about the nature of the disease added to the fear and panic o Only way people knew to escape the disease was the flee the towns and cities in which it appeared- for the poor leaving was not an option o Physician John Snow- published a pamphlet disputing the miasma theory and suggested that cholera was reproduced in the human body and spread through food and water o Snow developed a new approach of thinking about epidemics  Took a map of London and the plotted the location of homes in which 578 people had died from cholera  He went to those homes and spoke to the families of people who had died  He found that almost all the people who had died had gotten their drinking water from the Broad Street Pump  Plotted the position of 13 water pumps, showing graphically the relationship between the pump on Broad Street and the cholera deaths  He took his information to the city officials, who removed the handle from the Broad Street pump the next day  The cholera epidemic subsided o Snow is now considered one of the fathers of epidemiology & his founding events in the 1854 London cholera epidemic is considered one of the founding events in the field of public health o Also teaches us about prevention; can often prevent a problem through changing human behavior Rationale for Promoting Prevention  One-to-one therapy  Instead of treating disorders, why not prevent them from occurring to begin with  Treatment vs. Prevention Two Approaches for Prevention  Preventing: psychiatric disorders, problem behavior, social problems  Promoting: competence, wellness and capacity to address problems Prevention Models  Caplan’s Model o Primary- entire population, no known need, lower rate of new cases o Secondary- reliable test, see who is at risk, given to those who show signs o Tertiary- focus on group who already shows existing problems/have disorder, goal is to lower its intensity and duration US Institute Of Medicine Report (IOM)  Universal- designed to be offered to everyone (similar to primary)  Selective- above average risk for behavioral or emotional disorder, may be based on environment (low income, family conflict, school, self-esteem)  Individuals- show high signs/risks, not ready for treatment Prevention and Promotion Concepts (pg.295)  Goals & Examples  Debates  Risk  Resiliency- ability to overcome adverse developments and conditions, experience healthy development  Cumulative: Risk Hypothesis- all children can live with one risk factors in their lives without it increasing their risk of negative outcomes  Cause of Kauai Longitutal Study o Description: 1955- 698 children were f
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