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Chapter 8

Community Chapter 8.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PS282
Professor
Colleen Loomis
Semester
Winter

Description
Community psych chapter 8 – understanding stress and coping in context Risk and protective factors  Risk factors are characteristic of individuals and situations that are thought to increase the likelihood that a person will experiences problematic outcomes such as -personal distress -mental disorders -behaviour problems  An accumulation of many risk factors can create situations that make particularly vulnerable for developing problematic outcomes - a parent could be diagnosed with a chronic disease. This can lead to the child not receiving as much attention any more, the parent would not be able to do the same activities as other parents with the child, can lead to stress for the child, which in turn leads to poor social behaviour and problems at school.  Risk factors do not always lead o processes that result in problematic situations- the same risk factors may effect children in each family differently - depending on the persons access to social support outside the family, relationship with peers  Protective factors provide resources for coping and often represent strengths of the person, family, or community  Protective factors may be… - personal qualities (parents optimism) - interpersonal resources (good friends who offer help) - community resources ( support from religious congregations) - macrosystem resources (access to affordable healthcare, child care, etc) distal and proximal factors  distal factors are more “distant” from a problem- they aren’t direct triggers of a problem -they involve vulnerabilities tat are indirectly liked to a problem though.  -an economic recession is a distal factor (macro-level) that may reduce financial resources for employers (organizational level). In turn these organizations lay off employees, directly affecting how their families cope (micro-level_  proximal factors are “closer” to the individual or the problem  they directly trigger on contribute to a problem or providing a recourse that can be directly used for coping working through the ecological-contextual model distal contextual factors  ongoing environmental conditions that may result in various life domains  cultural traditions, beliefs, practices, or rituals  can provide strength during difficult times  can also create stressors- cultural influences on gender roles puts forth unfair workloads for women in some places  distal contextual risk factors tend to be chronic stressors, involve long term processes distal personal factors  aspects of a person and are generally not readily observable  genetic and other biological factors, personality traits, learned cognitive patterns (ex. Attributions about the source of a problems), continuing effects of prior life experiences proximal stressors  stressors- events or situations that represent a threatened or actual loss of recourses  stressors = risk factors that can vary in durations, severity, quantity, personal meaning, and point of impact types od proximal stressors - major life events - life transitions - daily hassles - disasters major life events  divorce, loss of job life transitions  becoming an adolescent, becoming a parent, finding a new job daily hassles  family arguments, traffic jams, conflicts at work disasters  hurricanes, floods, terrorism, war vicious spirals  cascading patterns amount multiple stressors that compound the effects of risk factors  they are set in motion when he loss of one resource triggers other losses  single mother loses her car in an accident, without the car she can not get to work, without work she can’t afford childcare, which then makes t harder to find a new job stress reactions  the immediate reactions from encountering a stressor  range from mild irritation to serious health problems  physiological – racing heart elevated blood pressure  emotional – anxiety, depression  behavioural – alcohol use, seeking help  cognitive – appraisal of threat excessive worry  social components – social withdrawal  often this reactions are interdependent resources activated for coping  resources that can be used to buffer the effect of stressors or to support the development of personal strength  simply having resources available does not lead to positive coping outcomes  a person needs to activate recourses for coping  illustrative recourses for coping include o material recourses – tangible objects used to address personal needs an in daily life (money, car, shelter, food) o social-emotional competencies- self regulation skills (managing emotions, motivations, cognitions o social, cultural, and spiritual recourses- the idea that “it takes a village to raise a child” – youth groups, mutual help organizations, religious congregations coping processes  responses and strategies that a person uses to reduce stress  fluctuates over time according to the demands of the situation, the available resources, and the persons current appraisal and emotions o cognitive appraisal – the ongoing process of constructing the meaning of a stressful situation or event. o Reappraisal – or reframing a problem involves altering ones perception of the situation or its meaning Categories of coping  Three general categories of coping Reponses o Problem focused coping- addressing a problematic situation directly, usually making a plan to change the situation o Emotion focused coping- addressing the feelings that accompany the stressor o Meaning focused coping – finding significance in the stressor by reappraising Virtuous spiral  The complete opposite of vicious spiral.  Adaptive coping leaning to resources increasing, successes build on each other Coping outcomes  Wellness – not just the absence of symptoms of a disorder or of a distress. It is the experience of positive outcomes in health and subjective well-being  Resilience - a persons capacity to adapt successfully and function well despite exposure to stress, adversity, etc. Thriving  When an encounter with adversity leads to a process of growth that takes a person beyond their prior level of functioning Empowerment  Gaining access to valued resources. Actually need to gain power in some way. Not just feeling of being in control of ones life decisions Distress, dysfunction, and clinical disorders  Problematic outcomes of coping  Range from symptoms of mental disorders to outcomes that are problematic but not considered clinical disorders (high stress levels, hostility, neglect) Coping is dynamic and contextual  Outcomes are not end-states.  They are one more step in the cyclical processes of coping  Outcomes can affect stressors and resources for future coping Interventions to promote coping  Intervention – actions taken to affect outcomes  Interventions need to
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