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Chapter 16

Chapter 16 Drugs and Behaviour.doc

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Bruce Mc Kay

Chapter 16 Performance Enhancing Drugs Historical • Early Greek Olympians used various herbs and mushrooms as stimulants • Aztec athletes used a cactus-based stimulant resembling strychnine 1800’s and early 1900’s: • 3 types of stimulants reported: o Strychnine: famous as rat poison, low doses can act as a stimulant, too high seizures in the brain, continued in the 1960s o Cocaine, also available in 1800’s in wine “wine for athletes” o Coffee, pure caffeine to their coffee or took caffeine tablets o Dope: illicit drugs derived from a Dutch word used in south Africa to refer to a cheap brandy, given to racing dogs or horses to slow them down • Amphetamines, 1930’s o Pep pills by professional soccer players in England and Italy o Boxers and cyclists o Seemed to be the ideal ergogenic (energy producing drug) o 1952, syringes and broken ampoules in the speed- skating locker room at the odlo winter Olympics o Also summer games in Helsinki and 1956 Melbourne Olympics o By 1960 Rome games, amphetamine use had spread around the world and to most sports • International drug testing o Some sports, especially cycling began testing on a sporadic basis o 1960’s some athletes refused or failed and were disqualified o Not enough to prevent death of Tommy Simpson ex world champion o 1968, International Olympic Committee established rules requiring the disqualification of any competitor who refuses to take a drug test or who is found guilty o 700 urine tests at the 1968 Mexico City Olympics • North American Football o Not concerned until drug reports surfaced in 60’s and 70’s when professional football players were using amphetamines during games o Physicians ordered large quantities for professional football teams as routine part of their supplies o Current cfl and nfl policies restrict all use of amphetamines as well as many other drugs, no matter where they are obtained • Steroids o Used during ww11 to gain weight and build themselves up o Soviets first to put drug to use to build up athletes, using straight testosterone o After US found out they helped develop and test anabolic steroids, quickly adopted by American weight lifters and body builders o First to acknowledge use were American and British shot-put and discus athletes o Widespread in track and field events in 1960’s o Not officially banned until 1970’s because urine test was not available for them until then o First to be found guilty were a Bulgarian discus thrower, Romanian shot-putter, polish discus thrower and weight lifters from several other countries o Ben Johnson, 100 meter world record 1987 Olympics, led government of Canada to establish a commission of inquiry into the use of drugs and banned practices intended to increase athletic performance, Johnson just happened to get caught out of others that use them • Balco Scandal o Professional baseball players using steroids but they weren’t tested o In June 2003 a track coach delivered to the US Anti- doping agency a syringe containing an “undetectable” steroid naming the source as Victor Conte, found of BALCO laboratories. o Syringe contained tetrahydrogestrinone (THG) a steroid previously unknown to the agency and that did not show up in agency tests o BALCO investigation led to a raid on the laboratory and discovery of other steroids and human growth hormone o Conte was put on trial and named all of his clients including Barry Bonds and many other professional baseball players o As a result MLB instituted more frequent testing and toughened penalties for drug policy violations • Battle over Testing o 1980’s, public revelations of drug use by athletes became common and cocaine wa
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