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PS285 (38)

Health Chapter Ten.docx

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Wilfrid Laurier University
Lawrence Murphy

Chapter 10: Physical Activity and Exercise Physical Activity Definitions: Physical activity is used to describe a wide range of activities that involve energy expenditure by the human body—includes walking, dancing, DIY, gardening, etc. Modern Lifestyle: - Hunter-gathers needed to expend substantial energy on a regular basis to ensure access to food and shelter - The rapid increase in technology in industrialized societies over the past generation has led to a much more sedentary lifestyle - This is a consequence of reduced need for energy expenditure in all spheres of human life—work, transportation, home maintenance - A recent UK survey indicated that 60% of men and 72% of women do not exercise to recommended levels - Among those who are the most active the common activities are walking, gardening, DIY and “ball games” - Evidence is now suggesting even walking is becoming less common - Fortunately, there is some lesser evidence that people are taking up more leisure-time physical activity such as walks over two miles, swimming, keep fit and yoga. Variation in Participation - Participation in physical activity is linked to age, sex, socio-economical status and education background - Men from manual social classes are more active but this was due to greater occupational activity - Adults from manual social classes participated less in sporting and leisure- related exercise activities - One problem with many of the estimates of participation of physical activity is that they often focus on leisure-time activity, especially organized sports - International Physical Ability Questionnaire: requires participants to complete a daily record for seven days activity in four domains—work related, active transport, gardening and domestic, and leisure than acquire measure of energy in each  Evidence suggests that the majority of people have very sedentary working styles and most women participate little in leisure-time physical activity Physical Activity and Health - The World Health Organization identified physical inactivity as a major cause of death and chronic disease worldwide - A particular impact of inactivity has been the increase in levels of obesity in the population. Between 1980 and 2002 the rates of obesity in England increased threefold - About two thirds of women and three quarters of men aged 55–74 years are classed as overweight or obese. Rates are higher among those from manual social classes - This has led to a series of governmental reports recommending increased participation in physical activity. Environmental Cues - Environmental psychologists emphasize the importance of considering the ‘behavioural setting’ or physical/social context within which behaviour occurs - This includes the ‘built environment’ – where we live and work; these environments foster inactivity, and hence obesification - Cochrane et al. (2009) obtained environmental data for an English Midlands city and combined this with information from a community survey of participation in physical activity - Statistical analysis identified a number of environmental predictors of physical activity suggesting that, the more accessible those places, the more likely people are to walk to them. - Salmon and Hall found that personal barriers (i.e., lack of time, other priorities) predicted the extent of involvement in physical activities more than environmental barriers like weather, cost and safety - Social environmental factors more important that physical in predicting exercise participation - Most important predictor of participation in physical activity: perceived behavioural control, behavioural intention, habit and excising peer - Most important environmental: accessibility to facilities Cultural Context - In Western societies, the muscular physique is presented as the ideal male form. Bodybuilding exercises reflect a bodily culture that is in line with American values of masculine prowess - Ability to attain this physical shape is promised to those who participate in various fitness gyms. However, access to these somewhat elite facilities is often restricted to those with money - Aggressive sporting activities are also promoted among the middle class as a training ground for developing an aggressive business attitude, and also the making of useful social contacts - Different religions have different concepts of the body  Forms of Christianity have traditionally held a negative view of excessive concern about the body  This has been suggested as a reason for the poorer performance of athletes from more Catholic countries in sporting events Psychological Models - Various social cognition models of health behaviour have been used to explain variations in the extent of participation in physical activity among adults - Three that have attracted the most research: 1) Theories of Reasoned Action and Planned Behaviour - TRA proposes that behaviour is predicted by intention to engage in such behaviour, which in turn is predicted by the individual’s attitude towards the behaviour and the perceived social norm. - Attitudinal component: function of perceived consequences of participating and a personal evaluation of those consequences while the perceived norm is a function of the perceived expectations to participate and motivation to comply with those expectations - The TPB introduced perceived behavioural control into the basic TRA model: the extent to which they believed they had control over a behaviour - Extensions of the TPB have investigated the role of a range of other psychological factors such as moral norms, affect, self-efficacy and past behaviour - Anticipated regret explained additional proportion of the variance besides the core TPB variables in explaining exercise intentions Social Cognitive Theory - Used extensively to explain participation in physical activity - ‘Self-efficacy’ is the common cognitive mechanism that mediates behavioural responses - Persistence in particular behaviour depends on individuals perception of individual mastery over the behaviour - This self-efficacy is developed through personal experiences of success, verbal support from others the perceived level of physiological arousal - Variants of self-efficacy predicting involvement in physical activity and exercise: barrier self-efficacy, scheduling self-efficacy and exercise self-efficacy - A related factor to self-efficacy is ‘self-determination’ – people will engage in many activities simply because of pure enjoyment or intrinsic motivation. - Bandura distinguishes between three forms of agency or efficacy: personal, collective and proxy - ‘Proxy efficacy’ is the belief in the role of others in aiding achievement of desired outcomes  Proxy will provide assistance and help individual achieve goal  Over-reliance on proxy may reduce cultivation of personal competencies  To promote sustainability of exercise behaviour change proxy-agents should balance between providing assistance and encouraging greater self-regulation by individual Transtheoretical Model - Originally developed to explain why anti-smoking messages were more successful for some people than for others - People adopting a new behaviour move through a series - Describes five stages of exercise behaviour change: 1) Precontemplation: Sedentary, no intention of becoming active within 6months 2) Contemplation: Still sedentary bu
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