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Health Chapter Six.docx

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Lawrence Murphy

Chapter Six Theories Models and Interventions Applied to Sexual HealthSexual Behaviour Any activity that arouses sexual arousal for pleasure or procreationLeads to an exchange in bodily fluids Can have serious consequences Pregnancy HIV and sexually transmitted infections Incidence and Prevalence of STIs HIV and AIDS STIs passed through intimate sexual contactCommon STIs are chlamydia genital warts and gonorrhea Most severe are syphilis and HIV but they are more rare Greatest affected age group is 1624 yearsIn the UK the incidence of STIs has been steadily rising since the 1990s 399738 new cases of STIs were reported in 2008Until 2009 over 102000 people in Britain have been diagnosed with HIV Prevalence of HIV across the globe has been rising steadily with the majority 67 in SubSaharan Africa US stats Center for Disease Control reported teenage pregnancies and syphilis rose sharply among US school girls under the Bush administrationBirth rates for teenage girls 15 and older were in decline since 1991 but have increased sharply since 2005 in more than half of American states Southern states where there is the greatest emphasis on abstinence and religion tend to have the highest rates of teenage pregnancy and STIs Knowledge Awareness and Condom UseA nation AIDS trust 2008 survey showed widespread ignorance about STIs and HIV1 in 5 people in the UK couldnt identify how HIV is transmitted There was an increase in the number of people using condoms in a relationship until weve both been tested for STIs and HIV57 of young people in southeast Asia know little about HIV and AIDS as compared to 743 of young AfricansSexual risk taking has been associated with poorer academic performance Possible mediator is alcohol and drug use All studies on sexual behaviour using selfreports tend to find disparitiesRandrianasolo 2008 suggested barriers to using modern contraceptives were Gaps in knowledge Misinformation and negative perceptions Concerns about social oppositions Alcohol and drug use prior to sexual activity compromises sexual decision making and increases unsafe sexual contact Negative psychological consequences guilt and reduced selfesteem tend to follow unplanned sexual activity Culture motivational and emotion factors play role in low condom usageIndividualLevel Theories and ModelsUse theoretical concepts and models as a basic for studying peoples actions and choicesTopdown process considering its based on preconceived theoretical ideas
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