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Chapter Three Summary.docx

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Roger Buehler

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Research in Methods Chapter Three Summary The Measurement of Behaviour Types of Measure - Observational measures involve direct observation of behaviour - They can be used to measure anything an animal or person does that researchers can observe - E.g. a rat pressing a bar … eye contact between people in conversation - Physiological measures – researchers who are interested in the relationship between processes and behaviours - Self report measures involve the replies people give to questionnaires and interviews - Cognitive self reports measure what people think about something - E.g. developmental psychologist may ask a child which of two chunks of clay is larger ( one formed into a ball or hotdog) - Affective self reports involve particpants response regarding how they feel - Behavioural self reports involve participant reports of how they act (e.g. reading the newspaper, going to the dentist…activities) - Psychometrics is devoted to the study of psychological measurement Scales of Measurement - The goal of measurement is to assign numbers to participants’ responses so that they can be summarized and analyzed - Nominal scale the numbers that are assigned to participants behaviours or characteristics essentially labels - Ordinal scale involves the rank ordering of a set of behaviours or characteristics - Measures that use ordinal scale tells us the relative order of our participants on a participation dimension but do not indicate the distance between participants on the dimension being measured. - E.g. the spelling contest; audience claps - Interval scale when it is used, equal differences between the numbers reflect equal differences between participants in the characteristic being measured - Has no true zero - Ratio scale – highest level of measurement; it has a true zero point - Involves real numbers that can be added, subtracted, multiplied and divided. - Physical characteristics like weight/height ( weight and height cannot be zero) - Measurement scale determines the amount of information provided by a particular measure Estimating the Reliability of a Measure - Reliability refers to the consistency or dependability of a measuring technique - Measures must be reliable - Observed score = true score+measurement error - The true score is the score that participant would have obtained if our measure were perfect and were able to measure without error - Measurement error is the participants observed score is the result of factors that distort the score so that it isn’t precisely what it should be - Measurement error undermines the reliability of the measures researchers use - The reliability of a measure is an inverse function of measurement error. Reliability as Systematic Variance and Assessi
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