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Canada (162,164)
Psychology (1,978)
PS366 (37)
Chapter 1

Chapter 1

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Todd Ferretti

Psycholinguistics – Chapter 1  psycholinguistics - study of how individuals comprehend, produce and acquire language o part of cognitive science o stresses knowledge of language and cognitive processes involved in ordinary language use o also interested in social rules around language and brain mechanisms associated with language o interest in psycholinguistics began in 1950s  introduction o few things play as central a role as language to humans o facial/body language have limited communication capabilities  language provides a way to understand private thoughts of people o jargon is developed to exclude outsiders as well as create a sense of bond to peers  different genders and social classes use language differently (different jargon) o words and word play have become a vital part of our lives  poetry, word puzzles, books...are all sources of communication as well as leisurely devices o psychology of language deals with mental processes that are involved in language use  three primary interests  language comprehension  language production  language acquisition  scope of psycholinguistics o part of emerging field of study called cognitive science  involves psychologists, linguists, computer scientists, neuroscientists and philosophers to study mind and mental processes o integration of psychology and linguistics  linguistics- branch of science that studies origin, structure and use of language  language processes and linguistic knowledge o What knowledge of language is needed for us to use language?  we must know a language to use it, but we're not fully aware that we know this knowledge  tacit knowledge - knowledge of how to perform various acts  explicit knowledge - knowledge of the processes or mechanisms used in the processes  we sometimes know how to do something even without knowing how we know it  autonomous skills  much of our language knowledge is implicit rather than explicit  four language knowledge may be distinguished  semantics - deals with meanings of sentences and words  syntax - involves grammatical arrangement of words within sentences  phonology - concerns system of sounds in a language  pragmatics - entails social rules involved in language use o What cognitive processes are involved in the ordinary use of language?  four language examples o garden path sentences  sentences that initially lead you in one direction to a pre-interpretated destination, but lead you to another, forcing you to backtrack  another part of semantic knowledge is knowledge of relationships among words, helping to shape our interpretation of sentences o indirect requests  Can you open the door?  is socially polite and acceptable as we assume the speaker is speaking to us but in an indirect manner as they use the word "you"  Open the door!  direct command statement 1 Psycholinguistics – Chapter 1  can be seen as intrusive or threatening  women and girls are more likely to use indirect speech rather than direct command sentences  sociolinguistics  study of relationships between language and social behaviour  reminds us that language activities always take place in social world  language varies with social groupings, influences social interactions and is an instrument of culture  language in aphasia o aphasia - language disorder due to brain damage  wernicke's aphasia  breakdown of semantics, but no impairment in phonological knowledge  speech is well articulated with appropriate pauses and intonations  displays appropriate syntactic structure o neurolinguistics - study of relationship between brain and language o brain injuries allow psychologists to analyze how specific injuries and damages to the brain can cause damages to language production/comprehension  language in children o children tend to understand some of the rules tacitly, so that they can use them  example - a child using the word "more" when pointing to milk could refer to having more milk  language acquisition in children is very hard to study o children tend to express themselves in 2 word sentences such as "baby gone", removing closed-class or function words and using open-class or content words  closed-class/ function words - prepositions, conjunctions  open-class/ content words - nouns, verbs, adjectives  this pattern suggests that they intuitively understand the two grammatical classes, part of syntactic knowledge o children's comprehension and production of language cannot be separated from social context in which they master languages  historical context o psycholinguistics flourished twice  once around turn of last century in Europe  once in the middle of 20th century in US  in early decades of 20th century, linguists turned to psycholo
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