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Chapter 8

Chapter 8 Reading Notes.pdf

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Wilfrid Laurier University
Todd Ferretti

READING NOTES Chapter 8: Production of Speech and Language Main Points: • Speech production consists of four major stages: ◦ Conceptualizing a thought to be expressed ◦ Formulating a linguistic plan ◦ Articulating the plan ◦ Monitoring one's speech • Spontaneous speech errors (slips of the tongue), although infrequent, reveal planning units in the production of speech ◦ Slips tend to occur in highly regular patterns • Both serial and parallel nodes of speech production have been developed, and each has its merits ◦ It appears that we plan one portion of our utterance at the same time that we are producing another portion • We edit and correct our sentences when we err ◦ The form and timing of self-corrections occur in systematic ways • Comparisons of the production of signed and spoken language reveal both similarities and differences Introduction • It takes intention and effort to produce words that we hear • Speech production consists of four major stages: ◦ Conceptualizing a thought to be expressed ◦ Formulating a linguistic plan ◦ Articulating the plan ▪ Using the muscles in the speech system ◦ Monitoring one's speech ▪ To assess whether it is what we intended to say and how we wanted to say it Slips of the Tongue • Otherwise known as speech errors • Some people are more prone to speech errors than others • Everyone makes speech errors ◦ More likely to occur when we are tired, anxious, or drunk • Types of Speech Errors ◦ In shifts one segment disappears from it's appropriate spot and appears somewhere else ▪ e.g.) “That's so she'll be reading in case she decide to hits it (decides to hit it)” ◦ Exchanges in effect, are double shifts in which two linguistic units exchange places ▪ e.g.) “Fancy getting your model renosed (getting your nose remodelled)” ◦ Anticipations occur when a later segment takes the place of an earlier one ▪ e.g.) Bake my bike (take my bike) ◦ Perseverations occur when an earlier segment replaces a later item ▪ e.g.) “He pulled a pantrum (tantrum)” ◦ Additions add linguistic material ▪ e.g.) “I didn't explain this clarefully enough (carefully enough)” ◦ Deletions leave something out ▪ e.g.) “I'll just get up and mutter intelligibly (unintelligibly)” ◦ Substitutions occur when one segment is replaced by an intruder ▪ e.g.) “At low speeds it's too light (heavy)” ◦ Blends apparently occur when more than one word is being considered and the two intended items “fuse” or “blend” into a single item ▪ e.g.) “That child is looking to be spaddled (spanked/paddled)” • Common Properties of Speech Errors ◦ 4 Generalizations about speech errors ▪ (1) Elements that interact with one another tend to come from similar lingiusitic environments • Beginning of words will exchange with beginnings, middles with middles, ended with ended • e.g.) “The little burst of beaden” (beast of burden) • “You're not a poojin pitter-downer, are you?” (pigeon putterdowner) • “Children interfere with your nife lite” (night life) ▪ (2) Elements that interact with one another tend to be similar to one another • e.g.) Sesame Street crackers (Sesame seed crackers) ▪ (3) Slips that produce novel linguistic items are generally consistent with phonological rules of the language • Slippery/slick = Slickery (a pronounceable non-word) ▪ (4) Segments that are exchanged for one another typically receive major stress in the word or phrase in which they reside Explanations of Speech Errors • The Freudian Explanation ◦ Freud argued that errors arose from concurrent actions of two different intentions ◦ They are caused by intrusion of repressed ideas from the unconscious into the conscious' speech output ◦ Simple slips like anticipation and perservation may just be simple reasons • APsycholinguistic Explanation ◦ Understanding language mechanisms from the study of speech errors rather than unconscious motivations Formulating Linguistic Plans Serial Models of Linguistic Planning • The process of planning speech can be viewed as a series of stages • Fromkin's Model of Speech Production ◦ Stage 1: Identification of meaning ▪ a meaning to be conveyed is generated ◦ Stage 2: Selection of a syntactic structure ▪ a syntactic outline of the sentence is constructed, with word slots identified ◦ Stage 3: Generation of intonation contour ▪ the stress values of different word slots are assigned ◦ Stage 4: Insertion of content words ▪ appropriate nouns, verbs, and adjectives are retrieved from the lexicon and placed into word slots ◦ Stage 5: Formation of affixes and function words ▪ function words (articles, conjunctions, prepositions), prefixes, and suffixes added ◦ Stage 6: Specification of phonetic segments ▪ the sentence is expressed in terms of phonetic segments, according to phonological rules • Independence of Planning Units ◦ How do we know that stages are independent of one another? ▪ Errors typically only happen on one level of planning • “Singing sewer machine” (Singer sewer machine) ◦ Here the error is at stage 5 in the Fromkin Model as the suffixes are exchanged for one another ▪ Yet, the rest of the utterance – the content words, stress values, and syntactic structure – remain unaltered ◦ Evidence has also been given that phonetic features are a “psychologically real” planning unit ▪ When we tend to make errors, they are not in the switch of phonemes, rather it is a shift of phonological features • e.g.) voicing • The Sequence of Planning Units ◦ Accommodation – elements that are shifted or deleted are accommodated to their error-induced elements ▪ e.g.)An anguage laquisition (Alanguage acquistion) • The shift of /1/ leads to a change in the phonetic form of the indefinite article from a to an ◦ The significance of accommodation processes is that they strongly support the notion that the phonetic representation of the sentence (stage 6) is formulated after the level at which the errors occur (stage 5) ◦ Word exchanges are distinct from sound and morpheme exchanges ▪ Word exchanges happen over longer stretches while sound.morpheme occur over zero to one word • The Role of Working Memory ◦ 4 Stages of Production: (Similar to Fromkin's stages 1,4,5 and 6) ▪ Conceptual Stage • Speakers determine the conceptual features that constitute the message they wish to express ▪ Lemma Stage • Syntactic features of words are activated ▪ Lexeme Stage • Morphological features such as suffixes are activated ▪ Phoneme Stage • Specific phonetic segments are activated ◦ Tasks associated with the early stages slowed performance on a concurrent ta
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