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Chapter 10

Chapter 10 Reading Notes EXAM.odt

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Wilfrid Laurier University
Todd Ferretti

CHAPTER 10: Early LanguageAcquisition LanguageAcquisition: Early Development • When does linguistic experience begin? ◦ DeCasper & Fifer (1980) rd ▪ Fetuses respond to environmental sounds in the 3 trimester ▪ The loudest environmental sound is mom's voice ▪ High-frequencies are blacked, lower frequencies pass through to the fetus ▪ Babies learn prosodic features of their native language in utero • e.g.) Stress, rate, intonation • Heart-Rate Deceleration Experiments ◦ Acoustic change causes cardiac deceleration in fetus ▪ Method: Mother recites a nursery rhyme 3 times a day for 4 weeks before baby is born ▪ At test: Play a recording of familiar and unfamiliar nursery rhymes ▪ Results: Greater deceleration when familiar rhyme is played rd ◦ Mothers-to-be read “Cat in the Hat” 2 times a day aloud during 3 trimester ▪ At 44 – 60 hours old: Tested on familiar vs. unfamiliar story ▪ Same books modified pacifier sucking rate, different books did not ▪ Suggests retention of stories • Speech is Special for Newborns: ◦ Distinguish speech from birth, orient to speech ◦ Preference for speech over other sounds ◦ Newborns prefer mother's voices to strangers What is the Nature of the Input? • Child-Directed Speech (CDS) ◦ Properties: ▪ Higher and more variable in pitch ▪ Exaggerated articulation and prosody ▪ Longer pauses, shorter phrases ▪ Slower rate at which prolongs vowel sounds ▪ Most pronounced when speaking new words ▪ Repeated words tend to be shorter and quieter, lower pitch ▪ Infants prefer CDS rather than adult-directed speech • Child-Direct Speech (CDS)/ Motherese ◦ Functions: ▪ Maintains attention of infants ▪ Directs attention to specific aspects of messages (what's new/ old) ▪ Slower rate produces clear sounds ▪ Emphasis on pitch and pause facilitates phrase learning through chunking/ segmentation ▪ Encourages child to think of language as an intentional social activity with rules ◦ It has an emotional effect on the child ▪ Universal correlation between stress and the emotion being what is being said • e.g.) Intonation patterns for prohibitions (e.g., no, don't) and for praise (e.g., good, fine) are similar across different languages CDS as a Pathway to Language Acquisition? • Hirsh-Pasek (1987) ◦ Presented 7- to 10-month old infants with speech samples that had pauses added at clausal boundaries or within clauses ◦ Repeated procedure with both CDS and adult-directed examples ◦ Results: ▪ Infants preferred CDS examples more with pauses at clausal boundaries than within boundaries ▪ No preferences for adult-directed speech • Prosodic Bootstrapping Hypothesis is that infants use prosodic structure in CDS to find the clues to language structure ◦ Evidence shows that children of CDS-speaking mothers have better phoneme discrimination abilities at 6 months of age BUT • Not all cultures direct speech to prelinguistic infants ◦ e.g.) in Zunil and Guatemala ◦ Different cultures differ on properties of CDS suggesting that CDS is not a universal property of language or even necessary Social Context of Preverbal Infants • Up to end of first year, children mainly communicate nonverbally: ◦ Tug at clothes ◦ Pointing at objects ◦ Waving bye-bye ◦ Throwing objects, kicking, etc. • Reveals understanding of how communication works ◦ (How actions can be used to achieve goals) • Understanding communication precedes and facilitates acquisition of phonology, syntax, and semantics Prelinguistic Gestures Development of Communicative Intent • Before 8-10 months of age, vocal behaviour has communicative value ◦ (Smiles and cries elicit responses) • Different cries discriminated by parent ◦ (Hungry, uncomfortable, tired) ◦ Not a true for of intentional communication ▪ Built in response that has predictable consequences • By 8 months of age, infants begin to use gestures in a communicative manner ◦ Children are now able to approach individual goals with a sense of purpose and flexibility 3 Criteria for Determining Intentional Communication • Waiting ◦ Try to get attention (tugging pants, etc,) then wait for attention, then point to interesting object • Persistence ◦ Get attention, but still persistent. Infants want to communicate something different from what the parent thinks • Development ofAlternative Plans ◦ Develop different actions to communicate desires more clearly ◦ Shows problem solving behaviour Beginning of Intentional Communication • Children apply their understand of means-and-ends relationships to social goals • Assertions: use an object or noise as a means of obtaining attention • Requests: the use of adults as means to an object Communicative Competence and Early Comprehension • Children use their understanding of the cognitive meaning of situations to help figure out what adults are saying ◦ Situation meaning precedes and guides both comprehension and production • Shatz (1978) ◦ Young children (19 to 34 months old) respond to a complex utterance by performing an action on the object that is specified in the utterance ▪ “Put the dog in the car” • Requires an action response ▪ “Do you want to put the dog in the car?” • Calls for an informing rather than action response ◦ The syntactic form of sentences had little influence ▪ 70% of the responses to “Put the dog in the car” were action responses ▪ 64% of the responses to “Do you want to put the dog in the car” were also action responses Phonological Development Early Phonology • Have knowledge of how to communicate in nonverbal ways • Use speech sounds and gestures for assertions and requests • Attempts at producing “normal” sounds have more to do with practicing than communicating with others • Identifying what a child knows about phonology is difficult because the ways phonological knowledge is expressed is often indirect • You cannot simply look at a child's production to assess their perception of the phonology of their native language ◦ e.g) Achild named Lisa pronounces her name as Litha but objects when an adult does the same ◦ Fis Phenomenon is the ability of children to perceive phoneme distinctions that they cannot produce ▪ (Named after a child who called fish, fis) Categorical Perception and Early Phonology • Eimas and Colleages ◦ Infants are born with perceptual mechanisms that are attuned to speech categories ◦ Method: Presented 1 and 4 month old infants with pairs of speech sounds ▪ 1. Sounds with VOTs of 20 and 40 ms – (Heard by adults as /ba/ and /pa/) ▪ 2. Sounds with VOTs of 0 and 20 ms – (Heard by adults as /ba/) ▪ 3. Sounds with VOTs of 60 and 80 ms – (Heard by adults as /pa/): • Infants were “attached” to a pacifier that recorded their sucking responses • First presented one member of a pair • When the infants grew tired of the same stimulus (level of sucking decreases), the other member pair was presented ◦ Results: ▪ No change in sucking rate with second member of either of the last two pairs (2 and 3) were presented, indicating that the infants did not notice the difference ▪ When the second member came from a different phonemic category (first pair), their rate of sucking increased dramatically, indicating they noticed the change Other Categorical Perception Findings • Infants perceive phonemic contrasts that are not part of their native language • Ability to discriminate phonemic distinctions from other languages declines over the first 12 months ◦ Phonological learning is defined in negative terms: ▪ Children come to ignore irrelevant phonemic distinctions Roles of Language Experience • Are phonological development changes best described as a form of perceptual reorganization or as a complete loss of earlier abilities? • Evidence: ◦ 1. Infants do not decline in their ability to discriminate sounds that are very different from their own language ▪ Phones that do not fit into any of these categories do not undergo this reorganization, and so children can still distinguish them ◦ 2. Infants organize their perceptual abilities to match their native languages ▪ 9-month old infants distinguish between monosyllables that are highly probable in their native language versus those that are less probable ▪ 8-month old infants can segment speech into words by attending to the probabilities of various sound sequences Role of Prosodic Factors • Infants can distinguish between utterances in their maternal language and those in another language by 4 days of life ◦ Discrimination abilities are based on prosodic cues such as intonational contours (i.e., pitch changes) • Newborns distinguish between languages that have different rhythm patterns, but not between languages that have the same patters ◦ Infants initially represent all of the rhythm patterns use in the world's languages, but through experience come to use the patterns associated with their native language ▪ The ability to process rhythm patterns helps them acquire native language Development of Speech Production Babbling • Babbling is a form of play • Non-communicative early on • @ 2 months: Cooing (made in back of mouth, similar to back vowels) • @ 6 -7 months: Reduplicated babbling (repeat a consonant-vowel sequence) ▪ e.g.) “Babababa” • @ 11-12 months: Variegated babbling (syllable strings consist of varying consonants and vowels) ▪ “Bigodabu” ▪ Impose sentece-like intonational contours into their utterance ▪ Vowels begin to sound similar to those in their native language Factors that Influence Transition to Speech • Greater motor control of speech apparatus • Cognitive maturation and expression of communicative intent • Awareness that specific objects are represented by specific symbols (names) Idiomorphs • Idiomorphs: Infants often invent their own symbols/ words for objects and events, and use these words repeatedly ◦ Indicate that children's language is creative ◦ Show that children learn that it is important to be consistent Phonological Process in Early Words • On average, children begin to produce their first words at 13.6 months • Children's first words differ from adult versions in 4 specific ways: ◦ Reduction – children delete sounds ▪ Difficulty with consonant clusters, and reduce them when they begin a word ▪ e.g.) “Tore” for “Store” ◦ Coalescence – Phonemes different from syllables are combined into single syllable ▪ e.g.) “Paf” for “Pacifier” ◦ Assimilation – Change one sound to make it similar to another sound in the same word ▪ e.g.) “Nance” for “Dance” ◦ Reduplication – One syllable of a multisyllabic word is repeated ▪ e.g.) “Dada” for “Daddy” 3 Reasons for Phonological Errors • Child can't discriminate sounds properly ◦ But anecdotal evidence shows that they can notice the difference ▪ e.g. Object to imitations/ corrections • Child can't produce sounds properly ◦ But children sometimes produce correct sounds in different contexts • Part of a more general linguistic process ◦ Child experiences “overload” because they have to also pay attention to the syntactic, semantic, and pragmatic factors * Not simply a result of perceptual or production limitations * All factors probably influence errors to some degree CHAPTER 10 READING NOTES Main Points: • Children's construction of language emerges from their understanding of communication prior to language ◦ Their comprehension and production of gestures reveal a basic understanding of communication processes • Although children first acquire the sound system of their native language independently of meaning, they eventually merge it with communicative gestures to form productive speech • The development of one-word speech comprises two important developments: ◦ The acquisition of the lexicon ◦ The use of single words to express larger chunks of meaning • Children's first word combinations reveal a structure that is neither an imitation of adult speech no fully grammatical categories of adult speech • Early stages of acquisition are similar in signed and spoken languages Prelinguistic Communication The Social Context of Preverbal Infants • Speech to Children Prior to Birth ◦ DeCasper and Spence: Infants could retain stories presented to then in utero ◦ Newborns are prepared to perceive speech at birth • Speech to Children in the First Year of Life ◦ Child-Directed Speech (also called baby talk and motherese) ▪ Tends to be higher in pitch, more variable in pitch, and more exaggerated in its intonational contours than adult-directed speech ▪ Fernald and Kuhl: • Babies sat on mothers lap • On one side babies heard adult-directed speech and on the other side heard child-directed speech • Ahead turn in the direction of child-directed speech suggests they CDS ◦ The caregiver encourages the child to think of language as a social activity with rules ans that we engage in intentionally to communicate with one another Prelinguistic Gestures • Beginning of Intentional Communication ◦ True intentional communication occurs when children apply their understanding of means-and-ends relationships to social goals ◦ Two communicative acts: ▪ Assertions (or declaratives) the use of an object as a means of obtaining adult attention • e.g.) Pointing and looking to confirm the adult is looking (but can also be considered a request depending on the context) ▪ Requests (or imperatives) the use of adults as a means to an object • e.g.) Achild tries to take an object out of mothers hand but can't get it and proceeds to stare at the adults face • The act of looking at the adult is considered a request ◦ To sum up, prelinguistic children use gestures to get the receiver's attention and to communicate ◦ Achild who looks at a ball and says ba might be making an assertion, telling the adults to look at the ball ◦ In contrast, Mama, accompanied by a whine and reaching for an object out of reach, appears to be a request • Communicative Competence and Early Comprehension ◦ Communicative competence is knowing how to use gestures and words to show off objects, make assertions, make requests, and the like Early Phonology Lexical Development • One portion of lexical development is referential learning, the process of learning what objects in the world various words refer to • Sometimes, they include too many items into their classes, called overextensions ◦ e.g.) When children refer to all four legged animals as dogs or all round objects as moon ◦ It can also be based on similarities: ▪ Functional ▪ Affective ▪ Forbidden • Underextensions occur when they use a word in a more restrictive way The Role of Adult Speech • An otensive definition is a statement of the for That is an X ◦ Such definitions are inherently ambiguous, as they could refer to the whole object, part of the object, or an action performed by the object • Acquiring Grammatical Categories ◦ Children must grasp categories that are defined in syntactic terms ▪ One suggestion is that they use their knowledge of semantic relations to learn syntactic relations ▪ This is known as semantic bootstrapping ▪ For instance, children ordinarily use sentences in which the grammatical subject is the semantic agent • Then they use this correspondence to begin learning the grammatical category of a subject • As children become more linguistically experienced, they induce grammatical concepts from the semantic-positional configurations already acquired Individual Differences • Two strategies for acquiring language: ◦ Most of the children Nelson studied approached language using a referential strategy of attempting to learn words – mainly nouns, but also some verbs, proper names, and adjectives – that referred to aspects of their immediate environment ◦ In contrast, some children used expressive strategy that emphasized social interaction ▪ Expressive children had more diverse vocabularies, including social routines such as Stop it, I want it, which were apparently learned as complete, unanalyzed units ▪ They were also more likely to utter whole sentences that were referential children ▪ They are more likely to use “dummy terms” CHAPTER 11 (Lecture 13) Lexical Development • Developments that take place during the first half of second year: ◦ Master certain words as labels ▪ e.g.) Toys, events, family members, etc ◦ Children have flexibility for social interaction ◦ Comment on the world around them ◦ Parents can tutor children directly in acquisition of vocabulary ▪ (Appropriate use of words, correct pronunciation, etc) ◦ Child begins to acquire lexicon ▪ On average, learn 8 words a day between ages 8 months to 6 years old ▪ This is called fast-mapping Vocabulary Development from First Words to 50 Words • Children acquire their first 50 words slowly, typically reaching that mark between 15 and 24 months ◦ Focus on words related to the here and now ▪ (Toys they play with, clothes they wear, food they eat) ▪ Words related to their environment ◦ Bias to learn words about objects that change in response to their actions ▪ (Learn ball before chair) • The kinds of words learned are typically: (mostly nouns then actions then prepositions) ◦ Specific nominals (Mommy, Rover) ◦ General nominals (Dog, ball, milk) ◦ Action words (Go, up, look) ◦ Social words (Please, no) ◦ Modifiers (Big, outside, mine) ◦ Grammatical function words (Is, for, what) Nouns vs. Verbs • For children acquiring English, nouns dominate the first 50 words ◦ 45% are nouns and only 3% are verbs • Nouns typically refer to objects, which are easy to perceive and are stable in the environment ◦ Easy to see • Verbs typically refer to actions and are relational – they specify the relationship between objects • Meanings of verbs often require a syntactic frame that identifies the nature of the relationship involved • Across languages the meanings of nouns are more similar than the meanings of verbs • Children tend to make 2 types of errors when learning how to map words to objects in the world (referential processing) ◦ Overextensions use a word to refer to a larger set of referents ▪ e.g.) Calling a round clock a moon/ calling all 4 legged animals cows ▪ They often identify one attribute of an object with a name and apply the name to another object with the same attribute. For example: • Perceptual (four legs = cow) • Functional (referring to a shirt on someone's head as a hat) • Contextual (calling a crib blanket a nap) • Affective (referring to a forbidden object as hot) ◦ Underextensions is when a child uses a word in a more limited way ▪ e.g.) Using daddy to refer to only their father ▪ 3 causes: • Conceptual categories differ from adults ◦ e.g.) Dogs and cows are a part of the same category ◦ Babies need to experience a lot before they can categorize • Know differences between objects, but not the name of one object ◦ Deliberately mislabelled to be corrected • Mislabel to be humorous Adult Naming Practices that Influence Lexical Development • 1. Original Word Game ◦ Child points to object and says “What's that?” ◦ Adult provides name, child tries saying name ◦ Eventually child learns name associated with object ◦ Difficult because no one-to-one association between word and its referent ▪ e.g.) Do you call a picture of an ostrich a bird? *To help with this issue of deciding what label to use we use basic-level terms • 2. Tend to choose basic-level terms as labels ◦ Basic-level terms are at an intermediate level of representation where there is broadest similarities across exemplars of a category ▪ Has the most feature overlaps ▪ It has facilitative effects in remembering and learning words ◦ After children learn these terms, caregivers move up and down in the hierarchy to be more or less specific Sofa Chair Furniture Exemplar Basic Level Superordinate Category Holophrases • Single word utterances that express more than the meaning usually attributed to a single word ◦ Use labels and objects for a word they know to get something they want ◦ e.g.) Child says water – stands for complete assertion I want wanter • 2 Approaches: ◦ Holophrases as implicit sentences – McNeill ▪ Have knowledge of certain syntactic relations but can't express them ▪ Some evidence that children at this stage can comprehend these relations ◦ Children do not have syntactic relations, but try to use words as sentences anyways ▪ Use environment as rest of utterance (i.e., expressing semantic relations) • e.g.) Using context → “water” around the kitchen sink ▪ Greater development at the functional level than at the structural level ▪ Child expresses thoughts that will later be expressed with grammatical phrases Grammatical Development • Children begin producing multiword phrases around 2 years of age • Some children produce multiword utterances before 18 months, others after 2 years • Some advances in grammar vary from language to language ◦ In English, children pay attention to word order constraints ◦ In other languages, they pay attention to grammatical morphemes ▪ Inflections over order ▪ e.g.) English children pay close attention to word order ◦ (word order is crucial for determining meaning) • Inflected languages (e.g. Turkish/ Japanese/ Chinese) – children spend greater amount of time learning different forms of verbs Measuring Syntactic Development • Mean Length of Utterances in Morphemes (MLU) ◦ Most widely used measure ◦ Provides a global view of syntactic develipment • Technique: ◦ Take 100 of child's utterances and count the number of morphemes per utterance ◦ Conservative index because words with more than one morpheme countered as a single morpheme ▪ If a word has more than 1 morpheme, just count the word as a morpheme ◦ Generally accepted as a good measure up until 4 years of age • Index of Productive Syntax (IPSyn) ◦ Newer technique: ▪ Measures the emergence of various types of phrases (NPs, Vps, Negatives, questions, etc) • Look at different types of syntactic structures that you get in the utterances (not morphemes) ▪ Not how many different types of phrases in 100 utterances • Better for predicting later reading abilities Acquisition of Grammatical Morphemes • Grammatical morphemes are not present in early word combinations ◦ Usually leave out function words (e.g., for, on) • Children mostly rely on word order to convey meaning • When MLU approaches 2.5, grammatical morphemes begin to appear ◦ MLU: Mean length utterances • Brown (1973) ◦ Longitudinal study of 3 children ◦ Examined the progression of 14 English Morphemes ◦ Examined linguistic and nonlinguistic contexts and noted when children used morphemes correctly ◦ Results: ▪ Order of progression similar across different children ▪ No correlation with frequency that child hears morphemes in adult speech • It doesn't matter how often they hear it, we still get the above progression • *Moerk found the relationship when examining frequency of morphemes used by parents just prior to use of morpheme by child Productivity in Morphology • Children use morphemes productively once they are acquired • Berko: ◦ Showed novel children creatures and actions ◦ Children were requested to provide appropriate morphemes ▪ (Nouns: plural, possessive inflections, etc) ▪ (Verbs: progressive, past-tense, etc) ◦ Results: ▪ Pre-school and first grade children showed productive control over morphemes ▪ Not simply learning morphemes by memorizing them, but rather learning how to apply them • The ability to produce sentences and apply grammatical morphemes develops slowly ◦ Advances occur when child produces sentences with agent-action-object (patient) ◦ Begin to use different forms of sentences: ▪ Negation (I won't be coming for dinner on Friday) ▪ Questions (Can your baby walk?) ▪ Passive • Asentence in which the agent of the action is the syntactic object of the sentence • e.g.) The cat was chased by the dog ▪ Complex sentences • Expresses more than one preposition • Acoordination is a construction in which two simple sentences are conjoined as sentences ◦ e.g.) Jill loved rock and Sally loved jazz. • Acomplement is a noun phrase that includes a verb ◦ The verb to go home “I want to go home” is a complement ▪ Relative clauses • Arelative clause is a wh- clause that modifies a noun • When a wh- clause modifies the object of a clause, it is called and objective relative clause • There are also subject relative clauses such as: ◦ The boy who was lost was found unharmed (who was lost modifies the boy) • Children's first relative clauses tend to be objective relatives Bilingualism & Second LanguageAcquisition • Language learned first is referred to as L1 • Language learned second is referred to as L2 • Issues with nomenclature: ◦ Sometimes L1 and L2 are learned simultaneously ◦ Sometimes language learned first turns out to be the secondary language Modern Categories of Bilingualism Simultaneous Bilingualism • L1 and L2 learned at same time from birth ◦ Child is born into bilingual community, family speaks two languages at home Sequential Bilingualism • Early: L1 learned first, but L2 learned relatively early in childhood ◦ Largest group world-wide, number is increasing ◦ Highest in countries with large immigration rates • Late: L2 learned later, in adolescence or after Costs Associated with Bilingual LanguageAcquisition • Some research indicates no costs, other research shows costs • Pearson and Colleages: ◦ Parents filled out vocabulary check list ◦ English and Spanish bilingual children had language capabilities similar to monolinguals ▪ Demonstrated fast mapping at the same time • Petito and Colleages ◦ Investigated children learning spoken and signed language simultaneously ◦ Children acquire both languages at the same time as monolinguals ◦ Produced first words and multi-word utterances at same time • Gathercole ◦ Bilinguals delayed relative to monolinguals on syntactic measures such as Mass/Count noun distinction and Gender ▪ Count nouns are distinct singular and plural forms and can be counter • e.g) Candle/ candles, one candle, two candles ▪ Mass nouns do not have distinct forms (e.g. Sand) • Can't be directly counted ▪ Grammatical gender – objects identified as masculine, feminine, & neuter Interference • Diary Study (Leopold) ◦ German linguist married toAmerican ◦ Daughter lived in US from early age ◦ German used at home first, changed quickly to English ◦ Results: ▪ Within 6 months daughter forgot German and had learned English ▪ Initially two languages were mixed up, but differentiation occurred quickly • Language mixing/ interference Properties of Interference • Occurs in phonology, syntax, and lexicon • Lexical switches between languages most frequent ◦ (Content words and function words) • Reduced if bilingual parents keep languages distinct when talking to children • Causes: ◦ 1) Lack appropriate lexical items in one language ◦ 2) Only identify a referent with the lexical item in strongest language Bilingualism and Executive Control • Executive control: The set of skills that allow us to manage our thought processes effectively • Bilinguals have superior executive control • Bilinguals outperform monolinguals in tasks that require the individual to ignore task-irrelevant information ◦ Interference suppression ◦ Response inhibition The Bilingual Lexicon Separate-Store Models • Separate lexicons for each language • Lexicons linked at the semantic level • Evidence: ◦ Facilitation gained by repeating a word (e.g. Repetition priming) is greater and longer lasting within than between languages ◦ Not clear that repetition priming is tapping semantics Semantics L1 L2 (Lexicon) (Lexicon) Common-Store Models • One lexicon and one semantic memory system • Words from both languages stored in lexicon, connected directly together • Evidence: ◦ Semantic priming produces facilitation between languages ◦ Suggest equivalent words share an underlying semantic representation that mediates priming between two words ◦ Most evidence favour common-store models Semantics Lexicon Translating Between Two Languages • Kroll & Stewart (1994) ◦ Translation by second-language novices is an asymmetic process ◦ Must access semantics of words to translate from L1 to L2 ▪ You first access semantic languages in L1 to L2 ▪ If you have access words from second language (L2) you access word associations ◦ Translate from L2 to L1 by direct links between words in lexicon ▪ Forward translation via conceptual mediation ▪ Backward translation via word association L1 L2 Evidence for Asymmetric Translation • 1. Semantic factors (such as items to be translated presented in semantically arranged lists) have a profound effect on forward translation but little or no effect on backwards translation • 2. Backward translation usually faster than forward translation Some evidence that backward translation also semantically mediated • Imageability of words influence translation times in backward translation, although to a lesser extent than forward translation CHAPTER 12 READING NOTES Main Points • Children's grammatical development in the late preschool years includes the acquisition of grammatical morphemes and complex syntactic structures • Children are increasingly aware of the language that they are using • Children's skills as conversationalists and narrators grow during the preschool years ◦ As they enter school, children are able to communicate in flexible ways • Children expand and modify their linguistic skills as they enter into formal schooling ◦ Classroom discourse differs from discourse out of school, and written language poses different challenges than oral language • Children may acquire two languages simultaneously or successively ◦ Bilingualism may sometimes lead to delays in language development, but it also promotes increased awareness of language and cognitive flexibility Later Grammar Acquisition of Morphology • Linguistic Complexity is defined in two ways: ◦ Semantic complexity (also called conceptual complexity) refers to the complexity and order of acquisition ◦ Syntactic complexity (also called formal complexity) refers to the complexity of the expressions used to convey the idea • An overregularization is the child's use of a regular morpheme in a word that is irregular ◦ e.g.) The past-tense morpheme in breaked and goed ◦ The over regularization occurs only if no stored irregular form is found Bilingualism and Second-LanguageAcquisition Contexts of Childhood Bilingualism • When children learn two languages at a time, it is referred to as simultaneous bilingualism • Sequential bilingualism occurs when an individual acquires a second language after already acquiring a native language ◦ This type of bilingualism is referred to as second-language acquisition Second-Language Acquisition • The concept of language transfer is that the child's first language influences the acquisition of his or her second language Lecture 14 (Chapter 12) Second LanguageAcquisition • Occurs when a child or adult has already become competent at a language and then learns another • 3 Reasons it is difficult: ◦ Aspects of language learning are difficult outside the “critical period” ▪ e.g.) Syntax ◦ Older children and adults often have less time and motivation ◦ Extent that the languages differ • Some evidence that time course of L2 development follows a U-shape curve (X: Time, Y: Performance) ◦ Decline in performance associated with substitution of more complex internal representations for less complex ones ▪ Knowledge restructuring • e.g.) Learners move from learning by memorization to using syntactic nodes Methods used to teach a second language Traditional Method • Based on translation from one language to another • Lecture in L2 grammar given in L1 Direct Method • All teaching done in L2 • Emphasis on conversation skills Audiolinguinal Method • Emphasis on hearing and talking instead of writing Immersion Method • Learners are taught exclusively through L2 Submersion Method • Most natural method • Learner surrounded exclusively by speakers of L2, usually in social setting or foreign country • The ideal situation How can we make language acquisition easier? • Newmark (1966) ◦ Learning L2 is characterized by phases of silent periods, despite obvious development of comprehension ◦ Forcing students to speak in these silent periods may do more harm than good because it forces the speaker back onto the rules of the language • Krashen (1982) ◦ Make second language acquistion more like the first by providing sufficient comprehensible input ◦ Immersion method exemplifies these ideas ◦ No obvious negative effects of immersion, actually benefits other ares of development ▪ e.g.) Math • Sharpe (1992) ◦ 4 C's of successful language teaching ▪ Communication • Emphasis on spoken communication ▪ Culture • Learning about the culture and de-emphasizing direct translation ▪ Context • Providing comprehensible input ▪ Confidence • Give learners confidence LanguageAcquisition Processes Feral Children • Children who grown up without human companionship in the wild ◦ e.g.) Victor – found in France ▪ Found when 12 years old ▪ No speech but normal hearing ▪ Given linguistic training for 5 years • Learned to name objects but not request them • Difficulty generalizing names for classes of objects • Developed gestural communication system ◦ All of this is taken as evidence for critical periods Isolated Children • Children who have grown up without normal human interactions ◦ e.g. “Genie” ▪ Experiences extreme social and physical isolation ▪ Confined to bedroom ▪ Displayed no social or language skills ◦ After receiving linguistic training ▪ Used intonation properly ▪ Speech sound substitution errors ▪ Rapid and extensive semantic development ▪ Acquired a vocabulary within 2 moths ▪ More than usual variety in first words ▪ Slow syntactic development • Few grammatical morphemes, no complex sentences ▪ Content words without grammatical structures • e.g.) “I like hear music ice cream truck
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