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Canada (162,403)
Psychology (1,978)
PS366 (37)
Chapter 9

Chapter 9 and 14

6 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PS366
Professor
Bruce Mc Kay

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Chapter 9 – Conversational Interaction The Structure of Conversation  Joint Action – one that is carried out by an ensemble of people acting in coordination with one another o E.g. two people dancing paddling in a canoe, o Waltzing the joint action of two people doing individual steps  Charles Filmore the language of face-to-face conversation Is the basic and primary use of language, all others being best described in terms of their deviations from that base. o Debates: give topic, who can speak at what time for how long o Ceremonies length is not specified o Meetings are less formal one dominates, not as structures o Conversations are the least formal Five Types of Conventions  Opening Conversations o Typically only one person speaks at a time o This does not mean that there are no times when two or more speakers are talking, but these times are usually brief o More likely simultaneous turns rather than simultaneous talking like hmh and head nods while listening to other person o Not attempts to speak, but rather show that you understand what the speaker is saying o Overlap is most common at turn exchanges when the speakers turn is ending and another is beginning o Address another person (Hey, Carl), request info (Do you know what time it it?), offer information (are you looking for someone?) or use some form of stereotyped expression (Hello) or topic (Strange weather lately eh?) o These get listeners attention and often lead to stock replies establishing alternation of turns central to conversation: A asks a questions B replies, followed by sequence ABABAB o  Closing Conversations o Conventions are at work to present pre-closing statements like well, so or ok signaling readiness to end a conversation o Alternatively a listener night bring up another topic and the conversation would continue o Albert and Kessler list several ways to end a conversation  Summarizing content of conversation  Justifying ending contact  Expressing pleasure about eac other  Making reference to the ongoing relationship  Planning for future contact  Taking Turns o Turn taking operates by 3 implicit rules  Current speaker is allowed to select the next speaker  Done by directing question to another person  Second is self selection  Another person speaks up on ther own  Third states that the current speaker can continue, although not obligated to do so  Turn-Yielding Signal – display of one or more behavioural cues that appear to indicate a willingness to conclude ones turn  Drop of pitch  Drawl on the final syllable or final stressed syllable of a final clause  Termination of hand gestures  Use of stereotyped expressions such as’ you know’, ‘or soemthing’, ‘but uh’  A drop in loudness  Completion of a grammatical clause o Duncan found a relationship between the number of cues indicating yielding and the probability that a listener would attempt to take a turn  No cues 10% attempted  Three cues 33%  All 6, 50% o Not finding the right word or expression, trailing off o Attempt-Suppressing Signal – continued use of hand gestures in conjunction with one or more of the turn yielding ones  When yield cues and attempt-suppressing signals were displayed, listener almost never attempted to take a turn  Speakers who but were silent but looked away were never interrupted  Speakers stop and look at the listener it is a sign for the listener to start  Negotiating Topics of Conversation o Be relevant – govern rather than restrict responses o Stepping out of the game temporarily to correct himself o story telling rules are suspended o Layer 1: primary layer of conversational activity – actual people saying things o Layer2: different domain – stepping out of the conversation, jokes in the middle of the conversation  Identifying Participants and Nonparticipants o Conversations take place in a context which various types of nonparticipants are also present o Participants – people having the conversation o Side Participant – someone related and listening but part of the convo was not direct at them o Overhearers – within earshot o Bystanders – those who are openly present but do not participate in the conversation o Eavesdroppers – listening without speakers awareness Conversational Participants Friends and Acquaintances  Common Ground – understanding those involved o A must know b, b must know x, must know b knows x o Conversation proceeds more smoothly when we have the ability to monitor others o Friends use more implicit openings, talked about more topics asked more question Gender Differences in Conversation  Three speech behaviours of interest between men and women o Overlaps – periods of simultaneous speech during the last words of the speaker’s projected closing o Interruptions – periods of simultaneous speech more that one word before the speaker’s projected completion point  96% of interruptions were made by males o Minimal Reponses – which were remarks such as uh-huh o Tag Questions – women’s speech tends to contain more linguistic expressions of uncertainty, and use more question innnotation in declarative sentences  Its awully cold out here isn’t it  Sort of I guess  So we will meet at 8  Women used more questions, attention getting devices, and minimal responses Personal and Institutional Settings  Personal Settings – free exchange of turns takes place
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