Textbook Notes (363,452)
Canada (158,372)
Psychology (1,877)
PS381 (40)
Chapter 6

Clinical Psychology Chapter 6.docx

7 Pages
Unlock Document

Wilfrid Laurier University
John Stephens

Chapter 6: The Assessment Interview Assessment in Clinical Psychology Definition and Purpose - Clinical assessment involves an evaluation of an individual’s strengths and weaknesses, a conceptualization of the problem at hand (as well as possible etiological factors), and some prescription for alleviating the problem - All of these leads us to a better understanding of the client - Ongoing process - Our ability to successfully treat psychological problems is directly related to our ability to define the problems Referral - Can come from physicians, teacher, psychiatrists, or the self - Clinicians begin with the referral question i.e. why is Sandra being so disobedient in the classroom? - Usually leads to an intake which is usually first order of a phone call to an agency, hospital, private office etc. - Morphs into a case history using categories to get background information - A diagnostic interview may lead to different treatment within the workplace o A case history and a diagnostic interview are closely linked - Mental status exam - Crisis interview could occur on helplines or crisis clinics (i.e. when someone is considering suicide, it is a very immediate approach) - Referral questions o What aspect of a patient’s behavior needs attention and clarification o Example: Why is Juan disobedient? - What influences how the clinician addresses the referral question? o Clinician’s theoretical orientation  Psychodynamic, behavioural, etc. o Choice of assessment instruments  Theoretical orientation impacts which assessment tools the clinician will use - Assessment is not a completely standardized set of procedures The Interview - General Characteristics of Interview o Carefully planned, deliberately and skillfully executed, and goal- oriented throughout o Used to elicit data, information, beliefs, or attitudes in the most skilled fashion possible o An interaction  Each participant contributes and influences the responses of the other o Interviews vs. tests  An interview falls between conversation and actual psychological test  It is more purposeful and organized than a conversation, but not formal or standardized like a test  There is a wider opportunity for an individualized approach that will be effective in eliciting data from a particular person or patient o The art of interviewing  The way about one asks questions  Emphasizing certain words  Important to not make them feel intimidated  Decisions such as when to probe, when to be silent, or when to be indirect or subtle test the skill of the interviewer o Interviewing Essentials and Techniques  Training and supervised experience are very important  There is a crucial interaction between technique and interviewer  Training involves a growing knowledge of the relationships among rules, the concrete situation being confronted, and one’s own impact in an interview sitation  The psychical arrangements  Can be conducted anywhere but you must consider privacy and protection from interruption o Interruption gives the message that the patient and his or her problem is of secondary importance  Wherever the interview takes place, it must not be very distracting o If in an office try to pick neutral colours  Note-taking and recording  Moderate note-taking is ideal  Too much note-taking will ensure the interviewer misses key subtle changes in expression and body positioning o Rapport  Relationship between patient and clinician  Rapport is the word often used to characterize the relationship between patient and clinician  Rapport involves a comfortable atmosphere and a mutual understanding of the purpose of the interview  Attitude of:  Acceptance  Empathy  Understanding  Respect  Competence  Requires that patients not be prejudged based on the problems they seek help for  After rapport has been established it may be acceptable for probing, confrontation, and interviewer assertiveness  Rapport can be especially challenging in cases that involve more than one individual or a unique referral source  Also can be challenging when the patient knows that the information gathered will be used to determine a school placement, to meet employment criteria, or to formulate a legal disposition regarding child custody, legal sanctions, or maltreatment allegations o Communication  Beginning a session  Useful to start with casual conversation to relax the patient  Language  Match your complexity of language with theirs, don’t overpower them with words  If your respect for the patient is intact, you generally need not reach for shallower techniques  Use words that will be interpreted by the patient correctly and how you mean for them to be o Clarify the intended meaning of a word or term used by a client if there are uncertainties or alternative interpretations  The use of questions  They distinguish among several forms of questions including:  Open-ended o Gives patient responsibility and latitude for responding  Facilitate o Encourages patient’s flow of conversation  Clarifying o Encourages clarity or amplification  Confronting o Challenges inconsistencies or contradictions  Direct o Once rapport has been established and the patient is taking responsibility  Silence  Assess the meaning and function o silence in the context of the specific interview  The clinician’s response to silence should be reasoned and responsive to the goals of the interview rather than to personal needs or insecurities  Listening  Our communication must reflect understanding and acceptance  It is by listening that we come to appreciate the information and emotions that the patient is conveying  Gratification of Self  Clinicians must resist the temptation to shift the focus to themselves  Avoid discussing their personal lives or opinions  But if a question is trivial, innocent, or otherwise basically inconsequential, a failure to respond directly will probably be perceived as the worst kind of evasion  Impact of clinician (appearance, values, etc.)  The same behavior in different clinicians is unlikely to provoke the same response from a patient  Important for all clinicians to cultivate a degree of self- insight or at least a mental set to consider the possible effects of their own impact before attaching meaning to the behavior of their patients  The Clinician’s Values and Background
More Less

Related notes for PS381

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.