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Chapter 7

Clinical Psychology Chapter 7.docx

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John Stephens

Chapter 7- The Assessment of Intelligence Historical Background • Intelligence assessment developed in the late 19 century • Influence of compulsory education resulted in a diverse student body • Failure rates began to rise • Establishing measurable capabilities • Realized mental abilities could be measured • Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon devised the Binet-Simon test to identify individual differences in mental functioning • Binet’s original purpose was to develop an objective method of identifying those truly lacking in academic ability • Institutions (schools, industries, military forces, and governments) became interested in individual differences • Questions of validity • Believed such tests discriminated through the use of unfair items Types of Reliability Types of Validity Concepts • Defining intelligence: three classes – Emphasis on adjustment to environment • Adaptability in new situations • Capacity to deal with a range of situations – Emphasis on the ability to learn • Educability – Emphasis on abstract thinking • Ability to use symbols and concepts • Verbal and numerical symbols • Within our culture we are interested in language Theories of Intelligence • Factor analysis – Spearman’s approach • g (general intelligence) represents elements common to intelligence tests • common to all intellectual tests • s (specific intelligence) for unique factors of a given test • the unique factors; a skill set • Intelligence is broad-based and generalized – Thurstone’s approach • Presented evidence for group factors (rather than just g factor) • Primary mental abilities • Numerical facility • Being able to use numbers in a reasonable fashion; automaticity (factoring something in your head) • Word fluency • Verbal comprehension • Perceptual speed • How quickly you perform tasks • Spatial visualization • Drafting/design ability • Reasoning • Associative memory – Cattell’s Theory • Centrality of g • 17 primary ability concepts • Fluid ability: genetically based intellectual capacity • Crystallized ability: capacities attributed to culture-based learning • Hierarchical model of intelligence (major group factors at the top then minor group factors and specific factors at the bottom – Guilford’s Classification • Structure of intellect (SOI) model as a guide • Most people use the data to form a model, he used the model to form data • Intelligence is three-dimensional • Operations • Cognition, memory, divergent and convergent production (constructing logical alternatives), evaluation • Contents • Areas of information in which operations are performed: figural, symbolic, semantic, and behavioral • Products • When a particular mental operation is applied to a specific type of content, there are six possible products: units, classes, systems, relations, transformations, and implications • This means 120 separate intellectual abilities – Gardner’s multiple intelligences • Human intellectual competence involves a set of problem- solving skills hat enable the person to resolve problems or difficulties • 8 formal groupings of intelligence • Linguistic • Musical, • Logical-mathematical • Spatial • Bodily-kinesthetic • Naturalistic • Interpersonal • Intrapersonal • Major criticism: “Intelligences” vs. “talents” Linguistic Intelligence • Involves sensitivity to spoken and written language, the ability to learn languages, and the capacity to use language to accomplish certain goals. This intelligence includes the ability to effectively use language to express oneself rhetorically or poetically; and language as a means to remember information. Writers, poets, lawyers and speakers are among those that Howard Gardner sees as having high linguistic intelligence. Logical-Mathematical Intelligence • Consists of the capacity to analyze problems logically, carry out mathematical operations, and investigate issues scientifically. In Howard Gardner's words, in entails the ability to detect patterns, reason deductively and think logically. This intelligence is most often associated with scientific and mathematical thinking. Musical Intelligence • Involves skill in the performance, composition, and appreciation of musical patterns. It encompasses the capacity to recognize and compose musical pitches, tones, and rhythms. According to Howard Gardner musical intelligence runs in an almost structural parallel to linguistic intelligence. Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence • Entails the potential of using one's whole body or parts of the body to solve problems. It is the ability to use mental abilities to coordinate bodily movements. Howard Gardner sees mental and physical activity as related. Spatial Intelligence • Involves the potential to recognize and use the patterns of wide space and more confined areas. Interpersonal Intelligence • Is concerned with the capacity to understand the intentions, motivations and desires of other people. It allows people to work effectively with others. Educators, salespeople, religious and political leaders and counsellors all need a well-developed interpersonal intelligence. Intrapersonal Intelligence • Entails the capacity to understand oneself, to appreciate one's feelings, fears and motivations. In Howard Gardner's view it involves having an effective working model of ourselves, and to be able to use such information to regulate our lives. Naturalist Intelligence • Enables human beings to recognize, categorize and draw upon certain features of the environment. It 'combines a description of the core ability with a characterization of the role that many cultures value' Theories of Intelligence • Sternberg’s triarchic theory • Deemphasizes speed and accuracy of performance – Component • Analytical thinking – Experiential • Creative thinking
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