Textbook Notes (362,768)
Canada (158,052)
Psychology (1,877)
PS381 (40)
Chapter 8

Clinical Psychology Chapter 8.docx

8 Pages
Unlock Document

Wilfrid Laurier University
John Stephens

Chapter 8- Personality Assessment Objective Testing • Objective Personality Measures – Fixed set of responses • True/false • Yes/No • Dimensional scaling • Advantages – Economical • Can be done online – Large group testing – Computer scoring & interpretation – Single dimension or trait can be targeted – Straightforward – Objective & reliable • Could pool in huge amounts of data from the amount of people that have been tested • Disadvantages – Questions may be uncharacteristic of respondent • May be too intellectually advanced – Underlying reason for behaviour not evident – Mixed behaviours, unrepresentative – Distorted or lost information • People lie – Purposeful incorrect answering – Misinterpretation • Content validation – What to assess? – Assess major manifestations of condition/trait of interest – Requires • Definition of variables • E.g. what does crime mean? • Consulting experts • Judges for assessment of relevance • Psychometric analysis – Issues • Can we assume that every patient interprets each item in the same way? • Can patients accurately report their own behavior? • Will patients be honest? • “Expert” definitions • Empirical criterion keying – Minnesota Multiphastic Personality Inventory (MMPI) – No assumption based on content of item (no assuming the patient is telling the truth or the response really corresponds to behavior or feelings) • No face validity in some of the questions – What matters is that those in the diagnostic group share responses • If those in a certain group consistently respond to an item in the same way, it can be considered a “sign” of their diagnostic status • The test response is not necessarily a sample of behavior because the content of the item may not be directly associated with the symptoms that characterize members of that diagnostic group – Empirical basis, not always rational – Difficult to interpret meanings of scores • Factor analysis – Examine the intercorrelations among the individual items from many existing personality inventories – Succeeding factor analysis • Reduce or purify scale thought to reflect basic dimensions of personality – Exploratory • Atheoretical, one begins by capturing a universe of items and then proceeds to reduce them to basic elements (personality, adjustment, diagnostic affiliation) in an attempt to arrive at the core traits and dimensions of personality – Confirmatory • Theory driven, seeking to confirm a hypothesized factor structure for the test items – Advantage • Emphasis on empirical demonstration that items purporting to measure a variable or dimension of personality are highly related to one another – Disadvantage • Does not in and of itself demonstrate that these items are actually measuring the variable of interest • Construct validity – Combination of approaches – Scales are developed to measure specific concepts from a given theory – Valid when scale matches the theoretical construct in question – Most desirable and most labor intensive – Feedback modifies theories and measures • MMPI & MMPI-2 – Self-report inventory – Purpose • Originally to identify psychiatric diagnoses • Categorical organization • Fixed answers of true, false or cannot say • Also used to infer personality traits • Computerized – 14-18 year old use the adolescent version – MMPI-2 is most commonly used – People believed the MMPI-1 was unrepresentative of the general U.S population – They revised it – Specific version for adolescents is available – Validity • Issues • Susceptibility to distortion through various test taking attitudes or response sets – Validity Scales • ? (cannot say) • number of items left unanswered • F (infrequency) • A high F score may suggest deviant response sets, markedly aberrant behavior, or other hypotheses about extra test characteristics or behaviours • L (Lie) • 15 items who are unlikely to be true i.e. “I like everyone I meet” • K (defensiveness) • 30 items suggest defensiveness in admitting certain problems – Addendums • Fb (back page) • 40 items occurring near the end are infrequently endorsed • VRIN (variable response infrequency) • 67 pair items with either similar or opposite content high scores suggest random responding • TRIN (true response infrequency) • 23 item pairs that are opposite in content high scores suggest tendency to be truthful • Attempts to present oneself in an overly favorable way will be detected by the lie or defensiveness scale • Tendency to exaggerate one’s problems/symptoms will usually result in elevations on the infrequency and back-page infrequency scales – Able to say how confident they feel that this is an accurate representation – Screening capabilities • Severity • Hypothesis generation • Issues of test length- about 550 questions – Personality traits • Atheoretical test • Was not developed with constructs in mind • Not developed with constructs in mind – Reliability and Validity • Difficulties in evaluating • Poor internal consistency • Incremental validity • Cutoff scores – Concerns • Non-clinical usage (e.g., personnel selection for a job position) • Necessary revisions? • Appropriate test pool? • Was it representative? • Unclear validity • Excessive overlapping among scale items • Revised NEO-Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) – 240 items • 5 point response scale – Used in academic settings – Five factor model • Neuroticism • Anxiety, hostility, depression, self-consciousness, impulsiveness, vulnerability • Extraversion • Warmth, gregariousness, assertiveness, activity, excitement seeking, positive emotions
More Less

Related notes for PS381

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.