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Chapter 16

Clinical Psychology Chapter 16.docx

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Wilfrid Laurier University
John Stephens

60 MC 20 marks on part A of short answer from latter chapters Part B- all worth 5 marks and do 4 out of 7 or 8 Allowed to take out MC questions in multiples of 5 and do an additional short answer question Chapter 16- Community Psychology Perspectives and History • Community Psychology: emphasizes the role of environmental forces in creating and alleviating problems • Focus on – Cultural relativity – Diversity – Ecology Principles of Community Psychology - What “causes problems? o Problems develop due to an interaction over time between the individual, social setting, and systems (e.g. organizations); these exert a mutual influence on each other - How are problems defined? o Problems can be defined at many levels, but particular emphasis is placed on analysis at the level of the organization and the community or neighbourhood - Where is community psychology practiced? o Community psychology is typically not practiced in clinica, but rather out in the field or in the social context of interest - How are services planned? o Rather than providing services for only those who seek help, community psychologists proactively access the needs and risks in a community - What is the emphasis in community psychology intervention? o An emphasis is placed on prevention of problems rather than treatment of existing problems - Who is qualified to intervene? o Attempts are made to share psychology with others via consultation; actual interventions are often carried out through self-help programs or through trained nonpsychologists/nonprofessionals • Implications – Focus on fit between people and environments – Creation of alternatives – Differences are desirable – Not one standard of competence/ social norm • Rappaport’s Views: three sets of concerns define the community psychology perspective – Human resource development – Political activity • Identify an issue like preschool enhancement – Scientists • Outcome based decisions about what to support • 1955 – Joint Commission on Mental Health and Illness • 1963: Kennedy Bill – Calls for prevention – Early detection – Prevent “warehousing” of patients in mental hospitals – APA support • 1965: Swampscott, MA Convention – “Official” birth of community psychology – American Journal of Community Psychology as well as Journal of Orthopsychiatry – APA division created • 1970s – Expansion of journals – Community focused textbooks • 1980s: Reagan administration – Funding cuts – Decline & fragmentation • Contributing Factors – Treatment facilities • Cost, efficiency, custodial • Introduction of psychotropic medicines – Lack of trained professionals • Higher demand than availability • Increases in prevention efforts • Emptied the wards quickly and sent them out to society without properly trained support • Contributing Factors – Questioning psychotherapy • Efficiency & efficacy • Cost of psychotherapy – Medical model • Spirit of the 1960s activism • Search for socio-economic influence • What elements are associated – Environment • Poverty, discrimination, pollution • Crowding, educational opportunities • Sexism, racism, • Influence of civil rights movement • All these factors influenced the development of Community Psychology Key Concepts • Ecological levels of analysis – Interdependence of groups • Individuals • Microsystems • Organizations • Localities • The community one lives in, neighbourhood associations • E.g. Waterloo is a locality • Macrosystems • Principles of ecology Every ecosystem consists of multiple independent parts Ecosystems understood by examination of used resources Adaptation of individuals Dynamism of ecosystems • Joint Commission’s recommendations More and better mental health research Broader definition of mental health service providers Community availa
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