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Chapter 4

Chapter 4.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PS381
Professor
Richard Walsh- Bowers
Semester
Winter

Description
Chapter 4ResearchhasseveralpurposesFirstitallowsustoescapetherealmofpurespeculationorappealtoauthorityForexamplewedonotjustarguewhethercognitivebehaviortherapyworksweconductthekindofresearchthatwilldemonstrateitseffectivenessorlackofitResearchalsohelpsusextendandmodifyourtheoriesaswellasestablishtheirparsimonyandutilityThereisanintimaterelationshipbetweentheoryandresearchTheorystimulatesandguidestheresearchwedobuttheoriesarealsomodifiedbytheoutcomesofresearchMethodsUnsystematicObservationCasualobservationdoeslittlebyitselftoestablishastrongbaseofknowledgeHoweveritisthroughsuchobservationthatwedevelophypothesesthatcaneventuallybetestedNaturalisticObservationAlthoughcarriedoutinreallifesettingsnaturalisticobservationismoresystematicandrigorousthanunsystematicobservationItisneithercasualnorfreewheelingbutiscarefullyplannedinadvanceHoweverthereisnorealcontrolexertedbytheobserverwhoisprettymuchatthemercyoffreelyflowingeventsAswithunsystematicobservationthismethodcanserveasarichsourceofhypothesesthatcanbesubjectedtocarefulscrutinylaterNaturalisticobservationsdobringinvestigatorsclosertotherealphenomenathatinterestthemSuchobservationsavoidtheartificialityandcontrivednatureofmanyexperimentalsettingsControlledObservationcontrolledobservationWhiletheresearchmaybecarriedoutinthefieldorinrelativelynaturalsettingstheinvestigatorexertssomedegreeofcontrolovertheeventsoInsteadofrelyingondistressedcouplesselfreportsoftheircommunicationproblemsresearchersmaychoosetoactuallyobservecommunicationstylesinacontrolledsettingCaseStudiesThecasestudymethodinvolvestheintensivestudyofaclientorpatient1
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