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Chapter 11

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Department
Psychology
Course
PS381
Professor
Richard Walsh- Bowers
Semester
Winter

Description
Chapter 11InterventionDefinedpsychologicalinterventionisamethodofinducingchangesinapersonsbehaviorthoughtsorfeelingsAlthoughthesamemightalsobesaidforaTVcommercialortheeffortsofteachersandclosefriendspsychotherapyinvolvesinterventioninthecontextofaprofessionalrelationshiparelationshipsoughtbytheclientortheclientsguardiansPsychotherapyisaformoftreatmentforproblemsofanemotionalnatureinwhichatrainedpersondeliberatelyestablishesaprofessionalrelationshipwithapatientwiththeobjectofremovingmodifyingorretardingexistingsymptomsofmediatingdisturbedpatternsofbehaviorandofpromotingpositivepersonalitygrowthanddevelopmentp3DoesPsychotherapyHelpEfficacystudiesplaceapremiumoninternalvaliditybycontrollingthetypesofclientsinthestudybystandardizingthetreatmentsandbyrandomlyassigningpatientstotreatmentornotreatmentgroupsIncontrasteffectivenessstudiesemphasizeexternalvalidityandtherepresentativenessofthetreatmentthatisadministeredARatheronaverageindividualswhoseekoutandreceivepsychotherapyachievesomedegreeofreliefForexampleafrequentlycitedmetaanalyticreviewofmorethan475psychotherapyoutcomestudiesreportedthattheaveragepersonreceivingpsychologicaltreatmentisfunctioningbetterthan80ofthosenotreceivingtreatment1PsychotherapyresultedinsomeimprovementforthemajorityofrespondentsThosewhofelttheworstbeforetreatmentbeganreportedthemostimprovement2AsforwhichtypesofmentalhealthprofessionalsweremosthelpfulpsychiatristspsychologistsandsocialworkersallreceivedhighmarksAllappearedtobeequallyeffectiveevenaftercontrollingforseverityandtypeofpsychologicalproblem3Respondentswhoreceivedpsychotherapyaloneimprovedasmuchasthosewhoreceivedpsychotherapyplusmedicationaspartoftheirtreatment4Inthissurveylongertreatmentmoresessionswasrelatedtomoreimprovement1Seligman1994invokestheconceptofdepthofaproblemtoexplainthechangeabilityofavarietyofconditionsorbehaviorsThelevelofdepthofaproblemdependsonwhetheritisinnatebiologicallydeterminedwhetheritisdifficulttodisconfirmthebeliefunderlyingitandwhetherthebeliefunderlyingtheproblemispowerfulinthesensethatitisrelativelygeneralandcanexplainmanyofthefactsoftheworldFeaturesCommontoManyTherapiesOnereasonisthatthepurveyorofanewbrandofpsychotherapymustemphasizethespecialfeaturesofthenewproductBringingforthaminorvariationofanoldtherapeuticthemewouldbeunlikelytocaptureanyonesinterestYetmostpsychotherapieshaveagreatdealincommonacommonalitythatinmanyrespectsoutweighsthediversityoLambertandOgles2004providealistofcommonfactorscategorizedaccordingtoasequentialprocessthattheybelieveisassociatedwithpositiveoutcomeoBrieflytheyproposethatsupportivefactorsegpositiverelationshiptrustlaythegroundworkforchangesinclientsbeliefsandattitudeslearningfactorsegcognitivelearninginsightwhichthenleadtobehavioralchangeactionfactorsegmasterytakingrisksTheExpertRoleItisassumedthatthetherapistbringstothetherapysituationsomethingmorethanacceptancewarmthrespectandinterestThesepersonalqualitiesarenotsufficientforcertificationasaclinicalpsychologistCCompetencecanonlycomefromalongarduousperiodoftrainingHoweverthiskindofequalityneednotdenytheimportanceoftrainingknowledgeandexperiencethatwillassisttherapistsintheireffortstoresolvethepatientsproblemsTheReleaseofEmotionsCatharsisThereleaseofemotionsorcatharsisasitissometimestermedisavitalpartofmostpsychotherapiesItsdepthandintensitywillvarydependingonthenatureandseverityoftheproblemandontheparticularstageintherapyButthepsychotherapistmustbepreparedtodealwithemotionalexpressionanduseittobringaboutchangeRelationshipTherapeuticAlliance2
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