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Chapter 3

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Carolyn Ensley

Chapter 3The Scientific Revolution Two social practices emerged at the time osocial management the increasing organization of economic political and social lifeindividualization the increasing focus on the private experience of autonomous individualsoTogether these two practices shifted philosophical discourse more towards what we would consider psychology and were critical to the formation of the science proper a hundred years laterThe term the Scientific Revolution partly refers to changing conceptions concerning Earths place in the solar system and humankinds place on Earth which contradicted the Churchs geocentric view of the universe Astronomers Johannes Kepler and Galileo Galilei independently reported observations that confirmed the heliocentric hypothesis of their RenaissanceThe term Science referred to all types of knowledge including the religiousFrancis BaconoBelieved in unifying knowledge and practiceuse results to transform society oObjectivity was achieved through empiricismoConsider Bacons insect metaphorEmpiricists are like ants which collect raw material but do not synthesize itRationalists are like spiders which produce cobwebs from their own bodies but do not collect raw materialBees however collect and digest raw material from which they make a new substance honey Their middle way represents integration of empirical and rational modes which in Bacons view is the path that natural philosophers should take
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