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PS390 (34)
Chapter 4

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Carolyn Ensley

Chapter 4 Change in Western Culture the Industrial Revolution organized on the basis of capitalist economic theory created structural forms of socioeconomic inequality while on the other hand the French Revolution of 1789 emphasized political equality Simultaneously colonialism contributed to the subjugation exploitation domination and understanding of the Other nonEuropean cultures as inferiorTherewereanumberofsocialmovementsforemancipationandequalrightsthatarosefromtheeconomicandpoliticalturmoilwhichledtoearlysocialismtheemancipationofwomenandtheabolitionofslaveryThe Industrial RevolutionoBroadly speaking the Industrial Revolution represented a major shift from a local agrarian handbased economy to a mainly urban machinebased economy enabled by the invention of technologies suited to mass productionoThe consequences were huge profits and wealth for the industrialists but poverty exhaustion and a very short lifespan for workersoMeanwhile other social classes became prominent the industrial working class and the middle class see image below Members of the middle class enjoyed relative freedom and appreciated the material benefits created by scientific discoveries and technological applicationsSciencetechnology and tertiary educationoThe Industrial Revolution had received huge boosts from previous inventions such as the steam pump and steam engine Wilhelm von Humboldthe cemented the idea that teaching and research should be united instead of either researching or teaching he promoted the notion of academic freedom where neither government nor industry should interfere in academic work he fostered collegial academic selfgovernanceUrbanization and nationalism oA related societal change was the rise of nationalism stimulated by the rapid growth of urban centresoThe major urbanized nationstates each fostered chauvinism the belief that it was unique even superior to other nationsoThe term colonial project refers to the establishment of a regime of subjugation by one group of people or nation over another resulting in politically economically and socially dependent coloniesoFor example British Queen Victoria became Empress of India in 1876 Shortly thereafter the great Indian Famine resulted in approximately 10 million Indian deaths The famine can be explained as a result of British imperialismoThe term imperialism refers to a process ofpolitical military economic and cultural domination that several European powers and later the USA pursued globallyoBut whereas colonialism operated in the colonies periphery imperialism operated from the centre ofpower eg LondonSocial Movement for Emancipation oThe early socialists advocated a planned economy to stabilize the economic cycles inherent in a freemarket economy They developed diverse plans to revolutionize industrialization and create a new society oriented to the common good that benefited everyone on the basis of economic social and political equalityoWomen Emancipation Women gave birth to fewer children and had more independence in cities than they did in rural settlementsWomen should participate as fully as men in all aspects of society and should have the rights to vote free speech property and divorce However the French revolutionaries executed her as a counterrevolutionaryNevertheless some women and a few male supporters continued to promote equality for women Early feminist writers in Britain eg Florence Nightingale 1820 1910 and the USA emphasized equal voting rights and other legal reforms such as the right to divorceoAbolition of Slavery But a tide of indignation about slavery rose in Western culture France abolished slavery in its colonies in 1848 while British and US agitators for abolition became more prominent and many US states prohibited slavery Yet after the US Civil War ended in 1865 governments only briefly enforced laws protecting the now emancipated Africans resulting in over a century ofracial segregation and denial ofbasic human rights for African Americans oResponse to these Movements In this way industrialists and royal heads of governments buttressed by the military contained political movements and violent revolts that threatened to replace the capitalist status quo with socialismThe Romantic Movement
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