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SY101 (172)
Chapter

3 - Culture

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Department
Sociology
Course
SY101
Professor
Dr.Christie
Semester
Fall

Description
CULTURE WHAT IS CULTURE? - The language, beliefs, values, norms, behaviours, and even material objects that are passed from one generation to the next - The material culture – jewelry, art, buildings, weapons, machines, hairstyles, and clothing - Nonmaterial culture – ways of thinking, beliefs, values, and other assumptions about the world COMPONENTS OF SYMBOLIC CULTURE - Nonmaterial culture – symbolic culture o Symbols that people use to communicate Gestures - The use of one’s body to communicate with others Language - A system of symbols that can by strung together in an infinite number of ways for the purpose of communicating abstract thought. - Language allows human experience to be cumulative o We pass ideas, knowledge, and even attitudes on to the next generation. - Language provides a social or shared past and future - Languages allows complex, shared, goal-directed behaviour - Language and perception: the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis o Alert us as to how extensively we are affected by language. o Reverses common senses  Suggests that rather than objects and events forcing themselves into our consciousness, our language determines our consciousness, and our perceptions of objects and events Values, Norms and Sanctions - Values – ideas of what is desirable in life o Standards by which people define good and bad, beautiful and ugly - Norms – the expectations, or rules of behaviour, that develop out of a group’s values - Sanctions – positive or negative reactions to the way people follow norms o Positive sanctions: money reward, prize, hugs, smiles o Negative sanctions: frowns, stares, harsh words Folkways and Mores - Folkways – norms that are not strictly enforced - Mores – norms taken much more seriously - Taboo – norm so strongly engrained that even the thought of its violation is greeted with revulsion Pierre Bourdieu and Cultural Capital - Developed the concept of cultural capital - Noted that certain “cultural habits and dispositions” inherited from family are fundamentally important to school success - Children from the middle and upper classes possess cultural capital or set of “habits and dispositions” that give them advantages over children from the working class. - Culture – source of shared norms and values o Share many of the prop
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