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4 - Socialization

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SOCIALIZATION BIOLOGY SOCIOBIOLOGY OR SOCIALIZATIONNature versus nurtureThe human nature explanations are biological or geneticBiological determinismthe belief that the way we act reflects inbuilt biological traits such as the need to reproduce the need to survive and so onHuman behaviour is in large measure a reflection of societal and cultural forcesThrough the process of socialization our beliefs values attitudes and even our emotions are sculpted throughout our lives by our contact with parents siblings peers schools religion media and a wide variety of major societal institutionsSociobiologists argue that much human social behavior can and should be explained in terms of our evolutionary heritage and resultant biological makeupToday social scientists continue to vigorously oppose biologically based explanationsBlurring Boundaries Between Biology and SociologyNeither social nor biological determinism is entirely satisfactory in explaining human behaviourHuman evolution is ongoing and humans are evolving away from each other as a result of new diseases and more anonymous societiesFeral childrenbrought up deprived of most human contact o They will never fully recover o Extremely fearful of human contact o Language abilities are impairedOur biological makeup sets time limits on our abilities to acquire language and make connections to othersOur human biology allows us to acquire extensive language skills only for a specific period of time during childhood THE SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE SELF MIND AND EMOTIONSSelfthe picture we have of how others see usThe overall process by which we learn the ways of society is called socializationCooley and the LookingGlass SelfTheorized about the emergence of human identityArgued that the unique aspects of humanness called the self is socially created o Our sense of self develops from interaction with othersTo become human beings we must interact with one another and this interaction is premised on a shared set of symbolsThe lookingglass self entails three ingredients o We imagine how we appear to others around us o We interpret their reactions o Based on our interpretations of the reactions of others we develop feelings and ideas about ourselves
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