SY101 Chapter 5: CHAPTER 5 GLOBALIZATION

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20 Apr 2018
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CHAPTER 6 GLOBALIZATION
What is Globalization?
- Spread/intensification of capitalism across the globe
o Cost cutting (especially labour) which usually means downsizing/closing facilities
in most industrialized countries and relocating to where labour costs, taxes, and
environmental protection is much lower
Textile/garment industries among first to be globalized
- Involves the interaction/integration of increased number through international trade
and investment, travel and tourism, and information technology and mass media
Patterns of Movement
- Immigration
o US has the highest migration
o Search for better life in richer countries
- Globalization and Tourism
o Growth is an indicator of the spread of international contact between people,
facilitated by cheap air travel, global communications, and internet
o Developing countries have turned to tourism in hope it will attract foreign
exchange and investment
Critics see it as an extension of capitalism
o Legal and illegal emigration from developing countries to more affluent regions
(like Canada)
- Woe’s ork
o Many new immigrants work as domestics or textile workers (soft sectors
because of a decrease in transferrable skills)
Unstable, low pay, high workload, high stress
- Asia outries ork i eport proessig zoes i hazardous oditios (tax-free
fator ities, proisig good jos aufaturig produts for eport
- Education helps people achieve
o Female graduates earn less than equal male counterparts and therefore spend
longer repaying student debt
The Issue
- The movement of goods, services, capital overseas often leads to the disappearance of
local enterprises, restaurants, entertainment venues in favour of branches pant of
foreign based transnational corporations
- Pros
o Benefit from increased employment and standard of living
In order to benefit, nations must open their borders to international
trade
o Level playing field
- Cons
o Most benefits go to transnational corporations such as Time Warner, Exxon
Mobil or AT&T
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o Increased inequalities of wealth, power and privilege accrue at the expense of
the less developed and poorer regions of the world
Globalization, Inequality and Development
- First world industrialized capitalist nations
- Second World communist nations
- Third World any nation that does not fit the above two categories
o After the collapse of the Soviet Union, these terms were outdated
o New terms, developed, developing, and undeveloped
Same drawbacks, now use must industrialized, industrializing and least
industrialized
Used to depict property, power and prestige
- Poorest countries face poverty, food shortages and increased rates of hunger
- Gap between richest and poorest countries has increased significantly
Modifying the Model
- It is difficult to clearly define a country’s status as industrialized, industrializing or least
industrialized because it glosses over certain distinctions such as hospitals, prenatal
care, water systems, food and shelter, or banking
Sociological Theories of Global and Social Economic Development
- Imperialism and Colonization
o The first European nations to industrialize got a jump at the rest of the world
o When industrializing spread from Great Britain to Europe, powerful technology
produced wealth, resulting in surplus capital
o John Hobson believed industrialized nations lacked enough consumers to profit,
so business leaders persuaded their governments to embark on imperialism to
take over other countries in order to expand their markets
Result was colonization powerful nations made colonies out of weak
ones and exploited its labour and resources
The European planted national flags in its colony and sent
representatives to directly run the government
The US planted corporate flags in a colony and let corporations dominate
the territory
World Systems Theory
- Immanuel Wallerstein
- Argued economic, political, social and cultural interactions have grown between nations
- Four groups of Interconnected Nations
1. Core Nations
o First embraced capitalism
o Britain, France, Holland, Germany)
o Rich and powerful
2. Semiperiphery
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o Nations around the Mediterranean
o Economies stagnated as a result of their dependence on trade with core nations
3. Periphery/Fringe
o Eastern European Countries
o Were limited to selling cash crops to core nations and had low developing
economies
4. External Area
o Most of Africa and Asia
o Left out and few economic connections
- Expansion of capitalism gave birth to a capitalist world economy no single world sis
outside the reach of global capitalism
- Canada as a Semiperpheral country
- Information Technology and News
o Communication and technology as intensified globalization
o Technology is owned by a small number of companies and therefore has made
the world more divisive
Dependency Theory
- Stresses how least industrialized nations become dependent on more industrialized
nations
o Single cash crops
First to industrialize turned nations into plantations and mines and as a
result many least industrialized nations turned into cash crops
o Arkansans Governor Bill Clinton/Haiti/Grain Production
o Poverty increased and quality of life has deteriorated, accelerated economic
competition
- To compete with other countries, many nations have lowered wages, eliminated worker
support programs
- James Petras and Henry Veltmeyer argue that globalization is a modern form of
imperialism that advances the interests of the powerful and privileged
Culture of Poverty
- John Kenneth Galbraith least industrialized nations were held back by their own
cultures
- Built of ideas of Oscar Lewis nations are crippled by a culture of poverty, a way of life
that perpetuates poverty from one generation to the next
- Faults the characteristics of poor nations rather than international arrangements that
benefit the most industrialized nation at their expense
- Most poor cultures are in rural areas experimenting with new farming or
manufacturing is dangerous because it may fail
Neocolonialism
- Michael Harrington 19th century colonialism was replaced by 20th century
neocolonialism
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Document Summary

Involves the interaction/integration of increased number through international trade and investment, travel and tourism, and information technology and mass media. Immigration: us has the highest migration, search for better life in richer countries. Wo(cid:373)e(cid:374)"s (cid:449)ork: many new immigrants work as domestics or textile workers (soft sectors because of a decrease in transferrable skills, unstable, low pay, high workload, high stress. Asia(cid:374) (cid:272)ou(cid:374)tries (cid:449)ork i(cid:374) (cid:862)e(cid:454)port pro(cid:272)essi(cid:374)g zo(cid:374)es(cid:863) i(cid:374) hazardous (cid:272)o(cid:374)ditio(cid:374)s (tax-free (cid:862)fa(cid:272)tor(cid:455) (cid:272)ities(cid:863), pro(cid:373)isi(cid:374)g good jo(cid:271)s (cid:373)a(cid:374)ufa(cid:272)turi(cid:374)g produ(cid:272)ts for e(cid:454)port(cid:895) Education helps people achieve: female graduates earn less than equal male counterparts and therefore spend longer repaying student debt. The movement of goods, services, capital overseas often leads to the disappearance of local enterprises, restaurants, entertainment venues in favour of branches pant of foreign based transnational corporations. Pros: benefit from increased employment and standard of living. In order to benefit, nations must open their borders to international trade: level playing field.

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