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Chapter 5

SY102 Chapter Notes - Chapter 5: Family Preservation, Psychological Abuse, Social Isolation

Course Code
Jeff Klaehn

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Chapter 5: Family Problems (continued)
Child Abuse
Definition: The physical or mental injury, sexual abuse, negligent treatment, or
maltreatment of a child under the age of 18 by a person who is responsible for the child’s
Neglect is the most common form of child abuse in Canada.
Canadian Incidence Study reported that more than half of children who experienced
physical abuse have some sort of behavioral problem, negative peer involvement,
depression, anxiety, violence toward other, and development delay.
Infants are at greatest risk of homicide by a family member.
Family preservation program: an in-home intervention for a family who is at risk of
having a child removed from the home because of abuse or neglect.
Elder Abuse
Definition: the physical or psychological abuse, financial exploitation, or medical abuse
or neglect of the elderly.
Men are more likely than women to be victims of emotional or financial abuse by an
adult child, caregiver, or spouse. (not including those who live in senior homes)
Factors Contributing to Intimate Partner and Family Violence and Abuse
Cultural Factors
Acceptance of corporal punishment.
Corporal punishment: the use of physical force with the intention of causing a child to
feel pain, but no injury, for the purpose of correction or control of a child’s behavior.
Gender role socialization… men aggressive, women passive.
View of women and children as property.
Community Factors
Social isolation
Inaccessible or unaffordable community services.
Individual and Family Factors

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Family history of abuse.
Drug and alcohol abuse within the family.
Families living in poverty.
Strategies for Action
Primary prevention: family violence prevention strategies that target the general
population. (i.e. public service announcements, media campaigns)
Secondary prevention: prevention strategies that target groups that are thought to be at
high risk for family violence. (i.e. parent support groups, home visiting programs)
Tertiary prevention: prevention strategies that target families who have experienced
family violence. (i.e. Canada’s 508 shelters for abused women and their children, “safe
Divorce rates in Canada peaked during 1987 and have declined since then.
Most common in the fifth year of marriage.
Second shift: the household work and childcare that employed parents
(usually women) do when they return from their jobs.
No-fault divorce: a divorce that is granted on the claim that there are
irreconcilable differenced within a marriage. (neither spouse is to blaim)
Individualism: a value system that stresses the importance of individual
Familism: a value system that encourages family members to put their
family’s well-being above their own.
Consequences of Divorce
Health Consequences
Divorced individuals experience lower levels of psychological well-being. (depression,
Divorced couples also have higher risk of mortality.
Economic Consequences
Women who get divorced from low income families improve income because men who
earn little income can be a drain on family finances.
BUT economic costs of divorce tend to be greater for women as they tend to earn less
than men.

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Men are less likely than women to be economically disadvantaged after divorce.
Effects on Children
Less adult supervision
Higher rates of criminal activity, school failure, teenage pregnancy
Presence of a parent in the home after school, at dinner time, and at bedtime reduces the
risk of suicide, violence, and drug use.
Children with mothers who do NOT remarry tend to experience more hardships than
those with mothers who remarry within a few years.
Parental Alienation Syndrome (PAS): an emotional and psychological disturbance in
which children engage in exaggerated and unjustified denigration and criticism of a
Strategies for Action: Strengthening post-divorce families
Divorce mediation: a process in which divorcing couples meet with a neutral third party
(mediator) who assists the individuals in resolving such issues as property division, child
custody, child support, and spousal support in a way that minimizes conflict and
encourages cooperation
Nonmarital and Teenage Childbearing
Percentage of birthday by non-married women has risen significantly since 1975.
Why? Stigma is no longer present. (spinster)
Teenage pregnancy rate in Canada is half of that of the United States.
Teenage pregnancy is lowest in most developed European countries, such as Belgium.
Denmark, Sweden, and Norway.
Chapter 6: Youth and Aging
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