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ACTG 2020
Carl Ching

ACTG 2020 Introduction to Managerial Accounting The gathering and application of information to use internally to plan, make decisions, evaluate performance and control an organization Future Oriented, Provide detailed segment reports of an organization, Need not follow GAAP Just-in-Time Inventory System: Only purchase raw materials and produce units as needed to meet customer demand. Inventory is therefore reduced to a minimum. You receive materials just in time for production -> complete parts just in time for assembly -> complete products just in time to ship Required very precise data and planning. Requires a great deal of time Total Quality Management (TQM): Improves productivity and quality by encouraging the use of fact and analysis for decision making and avoids counter- productive organizational infighting. Management of total quality. Total quality is defined as: Quality of return to shareholders Quality of products/services to satisfy consumers Quality of life at work and outside 2 major Characteristics: Focus on serving customers & Systematic problem solving using teams Cost : It is a monetary measure of the resources given up to acquire a good/service. Product Costs: Costs incurred to produce a product. Materials, factory rent Manufacturing Costs: Direct materials, Direct labour and Manufacturing Overhead Direct Costs : Costs that are clearly and conveniently traceable to the cost object. Direct materials, Direct labour www.notesolution.com Indirect Costs: Costs that cannot be traced directly to a cost object and can only be allocated. Indirect materials, Indirect labour, Overhead Period Costs: Costs incurred in the non-production area. Accountants salary Stages of Production: Work not started (Raw materials) Work-in-progress (Raw materials + Labour + Overhead) Finished goods Prime Costs = Raw materials + Direct Labor Conversion Costs = Direct Labor + Overhead FINANCIAL STATEMENTS: Opening Balance + Additions Ending Balance = Withdrawals Work in Progress = Raw materials + direct labour incurred + manufacturing overhead incurred Transfer to COGS = Opening finished goods inventory + additions to finished goods ending finished goods PRODUCT COST FLOWS [Lecture 1] Variable Costs: Costs that will increase in direct proportion to changes in activity. Fixed Costs: Costs that will remain constant within the relevant range of acitivty Product Cost and Cost Accumulation 2 Popular approaches in costing: Job Order Costing : Companies with job-shop operations. Process Costing : Companies that produce large numbers of identical units. The key to this approach is that the production output needs to be homogenous. Job Order Costing: Used in situations with different products are produced each period. Material Used + Direct labour incurred + Overhead allocated = Total Project Costs www.notesolution.com Manufacturing overhead includes indirect materials and indirect labour and is allocated to jobs rather than directly traced to each job. Problems: material requisition form is not properly completed. Labour hours charged to the wrong projects and a misallocation of overhead costs. Remedy: Computerized inventory system, provide clear descriptions of projects in the job costing sheet and use multiple cost pools. Overhead costs cannot be traced to products and services. This is a very problematic are in project costing as it is an indirect cost. They are assigned to products based on an allocation process. Overhead allocation base: Should be some productive input that is common across all of the companys products. It should have a cause and effect relation. Traditional Allocation Base: Uses machine hours or direct labour hours. Activity Based Costing: Separates costs into multiple cost pools. Overhead Allocation Rate = Estimate total manufacturing overhead / # of units in allocation base If the overhead is over or under applied and is not material/ significant, the difference is closed to Cost of Goods Sold immediately Activity Based Costing Traditional Cost Allocation : There is one single overhead allocation rate. Volume based cost driver is used because managers believe there is a large correlation between costs incurrence and the volume of production. ABC : A cost allocation system that allocated cost based on the underlying activities the generates the costs. Uses multiple cost drivers. 3 Strategic Objectives: Report accurate costs that can be used to identify the source of the firms profits Identify activities that can be performed more efficiently Identify future need for resources www.notesolution.com Labour Intensive Process: Overhead costs are small and allocations may be inaccurate. Automated Process: Overhead costs are relatively large and inaccurate overhead allocation can lead to questionable product cost information. Successful ABC implementation: 1. Must be a mandate from top management of the organization. 2. Design and implement a cross-functional effort. Define Activities: make an implementation team to do so. Data Collection: The strength of the ABC is highly dependent on the quality of data acquired. Interviews and paper trails Storyboarding Multidisciplinary project team General Allocation Process: Costs are accumulated in activity centre cost pools. Costs are then allocated in the following manner Unit Level Costs: unit-based cost driver. Direct material, d. labour. Batch Level Costs: allocated over the # of units in a batch. Purchase orders, setup, inspection, movement. Product Level Costs: over # of units produced in relation to product line. Equipment maintenance, product development. Organizational Level Costs: allocated below the line. Building depreciation, organizational advertising. Cost Driver: a characteristic of an event or activity that results in the incurrence of costs. Activity Rates: are used for assigning overhead costs to products and customers. www.notesolution.com
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