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Chapter 3

Chapter 3 Notes

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Administrative Studies
ADMS 1000
Eytan Lasry

Readings- Chapter 3 What do Managers do? Management: the process of administering & coordinating resources effectively & efficiently in an effort to achieve the organization’s goals Managing includes the process of planning, organization, leading & controlling resources in order to achieve organizational goals Functions of Management Planning: assessing what the organization’s goals should be; generating strategies to achieve the organization’s goals Organizing: designing work activities (how the tasks will be assigned etc) Leading: guiding & motivating all members toward the achievement if the organization’s goals; communicating ideas & directions effectively Controlling: assessing whether the organization is progressing toward its goals; taking steps to ensure problems are dealt with; establishing standards of performance The Roles Managers Play in Organizations Henry Mintzberg conducted a study of managers in 1960’s Managers engaged in a variety of unpatterned short-duration activities, & the constant interruptions suggest that there was little time for systematic reflection 10 roles that classify into 3 broad categories – interpersonal, informational & decisional roles Interpersonal Roles Tasks that arise from the managers formal authority base & involve relationships with either organizational members or external parties Figurehead: roles are typically ceremonial or symbolic. Ie, the supervisor might hand out “employee of the month” awards at a company banquet Leader: the manager may serve as a motivator, a communicator & a coordinator of their subordinates’ activities. Ie, performance appraisals, training a new employee etc Liaison: managerial activities that involve developing relationships with members of the organization outside the manager’s area of authority. Ie, sales manager’s relationship with the production department Informational Roles www.notesolution.com Reflects the importance of managers as communication sources for the organization Monitor: managers must constantly monitor the internal & external environments of their organization in order to gather information that’s useful for decision making. Ie, the marketing manager may be responsible for assessing consumer demand for a newly proposed product Disseminators: they may share or distribute the information that they have gained as their role as monitors. Ie, offering clear information regarding company expectations of performance standards Spokesperson: managers that transmit information to individuals outside their area of authority. Ie, marketing manager might provide the engineering department with the latest report of consumer preferences regarding product design Decisional Roles Highlights the fact that managers must process information & act as decision makers Entrepreneur: manager may develop & initiate new projects Disturbance handlers: dealing with & resolving conflict. Ie, resolving a dispute between two employers Resource allocator: deciding how resources (money, equipment etc) will be allocated. Ie, department head might decide how to allocate a limited financial budget among the different areas Negotiator: ie, negotiating with customers, employees, other departments etc Classical Approaches During late 19 & early 10 century Scientific management, administrative management, bureaucratic management th Industrial revolution was a major transformation in work processes that began in 18 century (factories) Factory system lead to a higher standard of living “laissez-faire”: business or manufacturers should be free to make & sell what they want There must be a clear role for managers A “machine” like approach to managing workers Rules/hierarchies www.notesolution.com Scientific Management Frederick Taylor wanted to improve productivity 3 guidelines of scientific management Standardizing the work time & motion studies (involved using a movie camera & a stopwatch to watch task performance). Break down the job into steps & allow workers to perform basic tasks. This kept the job simple, easy, inexpensive to train workers. Clear rules of how to perform. “set proper standards of work performance”. Supervising the worker s managers should only take charge in their areas of expertise. Managers’ skills became specific to manage. Motivating the worker s “money motivates”. Compensation must be closely tied to performance. Piece-rate system (workers pay was directly tied to their output). Taylor’s management theory influenced the education system todtaychers break down work into small components & grades/subjects Administrative Management Henry Fayol’s theory focuses on management & the functions that managers should perform His work focused on upper levels of administration Supported division of work: breaking work down into components & assigning these elements to workers Manager should give orders & discipline employees Unity of comman d each employee should report to only one boss in order to avoid confusion & conflicting instructions Esprit de corps team spirit & harmony should be encouraged among workers to generate organizational cohesiveness & unity Bureaucratic Management Max Weber Roles & procedures: organizations require stable, comprehensive & documented rules for administration or any organizational activity Hierarchy of authority: there must be fixed positions ranked according to the level of power/authority held in the position. Members with higher positions will supervise lower positions. Division of labour: simplifying jobs into smaller components www.notesolution.com Impersonality: relationships between members or an individual with the organization should be professional. This is to avoid favouritism Selection & promotion: people hired will be hired based on their ability; not friendships or family ties. Promotion will be based on job performance; not favouritism Main focus to avoid arbitrary & biased decisions based on favouritism Behavioural Approaches to Management A recognition of employees not as another resource to be managed, but as individuals with certain needs Focuses on the nature of the employee & on what factors encourage employees to maximize their efforts Organizations are designed to produce a good or serv
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