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Chapter 1

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York University
Administrative Studies
ADMS 1010

Chapter 1 Organizations: A group of ppl with a common goal interacting with the environment 3 Types of organizations: 1. Public/ Government 2. Non – Profit organizations 3. Private What makes all these things organizations? 1. Organizations are social entities; meaning they are made up of ppl 2. Organizations are created to achieve goals: they are goal directed 3. Organizations interact with the envr’t: obtains inputs from its env’t and creates output Concepts of Organizations: 1. Machine (more closed system) 2. Living organism (more open system) 3. Political system (power/conflict/resolution) 4. Theatre (roles/performances/drama/acts) 5. Team (collaboration/co-operation/common goal to succeed) Open System: A notion that asserts that organizations are entities that are embedded in, and dependent on exchanges with the environment they operate within. • The external context of an organization is called their environment and can be split into 2 dimensions specific and general organizations Specific Environment: (or task environment) stakeholders or parties that have direct influence on the organizations ability to obtain resources and generate outputs. E.g Customers, suppliers, labour pool General Organizations: The forces that shape the specific environment of an organization. 7 Forces of an organization: (LETGPSC) 1. Economic Forces – Factors such as GDP, Inflation, Interest rate, which determine the state of competitive environment in which a firm operates. These forces affect the outcome of the firm's marketing activities, by determining the volume and strength of demand for the its products. • GDP : total value of goods and services in a given year. The money that is earned from producing goods and services goes to the employers who produce them, to the ppl who own the business and governments in the form of taxes 2.Competitive Forces - Factors that influence the competitive position of a company in an industry or market. Competitive forces include (1) bargaining power of the buyers and suppliers, (2) threat of new entrants, and (3) rivalry among existing companies. • Mainly an open economy with a lot of international investors in our resources • Perfect Competition: several small firms selling identical product e.g agriculture • Monopolistic competition: large amount of small firms whose product is perceived different • Oligopoly: small number of firms with different products or services • Canada’s economic system is based of fair competition 3. Global Forces – Factors that could be embedded in general economic political and societal forces – but are international in nature • Canada is a major trading company exporting %40 of annual production to U.S • Traditionally in a trade deficit (exports greater than inports • High level of foreign ownership 4. Technological forces - The influences that developments in technology have on  consumers, business and society in general.  • Canada’s employment has shifted from production to services because of increase in technology 5. Labour Forces - Number of individuals in an economy who either areemployed or are  seeking employment. • Not many candians • Multicultural in major cities • Business’ cater to demographics 6. Political Forces - Parties, personalities, pressure groups that stronglyinfluence the economic and political stability of a countrythrough their actions and pronouncements. • Canada has a long history of government involvement in promoting and protecting our industries 7. Societal Forces - An element of society which has the capability of causing cultural change or influences people. Chapter 2 Economic System: allocates a nations resources among its citizens. They differ in terms of who owns and controls these resources, known as the factors of production. Factors of Production: The basic resources that a country’s businesses use to produce goods and services. CENIL 1. Labour – ppl who work for a company 2. Capital – funds needed to start and maintain a business 3. Entrepreneurs – ppl who accept the risk and opportunities in creating business 4. Natural Resources – all physical resources 5. Information Resources – specialized knowledge and expertise of ppl as well as info that is found in market forecasts and various forms of economic data. Types of economic systems Command Economy: a centralized gov’t that contols all or most factors of production and to make all production and allocation decisions. Market Economy: Ind’l – producers and consumers – control production and allocation through the laws of supply and demand Input/Output markets: In the input market, firms buy resources from households, which then supply those resources. In output market, firms supply goods and services in response to demand on part of the household. Private Enterprise System: One that allows ind’l to pursue their own interests with minimal governance restriction. Elements of the private enterprise system: 1. Private Property – ownership of resource that gerates wealth 2. Freedom of choice – sell labour to any you choose 3. Profits – the lure of profits 4. Competition – motivates business to operate fair and efficiently Degree of Competition Perfect Competition • Small in size • Produce same product • Buyers and sellers know prices • Easy to enter and leave Monopolistic Competition • Fewer sellers than pure competition but many buyers • Sellers try to differentiate product through design, brand names, and advertising • May be large or small Oligopoly • Handful of very large sellers • Completion is fierce • Avoid price competition b/c it lowers profits Monopoly • Only one producer How do we know our economic system is growing? A: Aggregate Output: the total number of goods and services produced by an economic system in a given period of time Business Cycle 1. Depression 2. Recession 3. Recovery 4. Peak GDP: The total value of all goods and services produced within a given period by a national economy through domestic factors of production Real Growth Rates: Growth rate of the GDP adjusted for inflation and changes in the value of the country’s currency
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