Chapter 6 - Motivation
Motivation: a set of energetic forces that determine the direction, intensity and
persistence of an employee’s work effort.
- Internal force: self confidence
- External force: goals provided for employees to follow.
- Direction of effort: what are you going to do right now?
- Intensity of effort: how hard are you going to work on it?
- Persistence of effort: how long are you going to work on it?
1) Expectancy Theory: the rational process that employees go through to
make choices among different voluntary responses.
- Belief that exerting high level of effort will result in the successful
performance of some task.
o Self-efficacy: belief that individual has required skills to complete
Past accomplishments, various experiences (others who have
performed some work task), verbal persuasion (get persuaded
by others to get work done) and emotional cues (fear and
anxiety creates doubt while pride and enthusiasm boosts
o Instrumentality: belief that successful performance will result in the
attainment of some outcomes.
o Valance: anticipated value of the outcomes associated with successful
Positively valence: promotions, salary increase and bonuses
Negatively valence: demotions, terminations, and disciplinary
Motivational Force(total motivation) – Motivational Force = 0 if any of the 3
beliefs is zero.
- Intrinsic motivation: desire to put forth work effort due to the sense that
task performance serves as its own regard.
o Ex – driver chooses to drive not to win but due to internal factors that
provide him enjoyment and personal expression.
- Extrinsic motivation: desire to put forth work effort due to some
contingency that depends on task performance.
o Ex – things (satisfaction) that winning a race brings for the driver.
2) Goal Setting Theory: views goals as the primary drivers of the intensity and
persistence of effort.
- Specific and Difficult Goals: goals that stretch an employee to perform at
his/her maximum level while still staying with the boundaries of his/her
ability. Chapter 6 - Motivation
- Self-set goals: internal goals that people use to monitor their own task
- Task Strategies: learning plans and problem-solving approaches used to
achieve successful performance.
o Feedback: progress updates on work goals
o Task complexity: degree to which the information and actions needed
to complete a task are complicated
o Goal commitment: degree to which a person accepts a go