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Chapter 6

Chapter 6 - Motivation.docx

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Administrative Studies
ADMS 2400
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Chapter 6 - Motivation Motivation: a set of energetic forces that determine the direction, intensity and persistence of an employee’s work effort. - Internal force: self confidence - External force: goals provided for employees to follow. - Direction of effort: what are you going to do right now? - Intensity of effort: how hard are you going to work on it? - Persistence of effort: how long are you going to work on it? Theories: 1) Expectancy Theory: the rational process that employees go through to make choices among different voluntary responses. - Belief that exerting high level of effort will result in the successful performance of some task. - Factors: o Self-efficacy: belief that individual has required skills to complete task successfully.  Past accomplishments, various experiences (others who have performed some work task), verbal persuasion (get persuaded by others to get work done) and emotional cues (fear and anxiety creates doubt while pride and enthusiasm boosts confidence) o Instrumentality: belief that successful performance will result in the attainment of some outcomes. o Valance: anticipated value of the outcomes associated with successful performance.  Positively valence: promotions, salary increase and bonuses  Negatively valence: demotions, terminations, and disciplinary actions. Motivational Force(total motivation) – Motivational Force = 0 if any of the 3 beliefs is zero. - Intrinsic motivation: desire to put forth work effort due to the sense that task performance serves as its own regard. o Ex – driver chooses to drive not to win but due to internal factors that provide him enjoyment and personal expression. - Extrinsic motivation: desire to put forth work effort due to some contingency that depends on task performance. o Ex – things (satisfaction) that winning a race brings for the driver. 2) Goal Setting Theory: views goals as the primary drivers of the intensity and persistence of effort. - Specific and Difficult Goals: goals that stretch an employee to perform at his/her maximum level while still staying with the boundaries of his/her ability. Chapter 6 - Motivation - Self-set goals: internal goals that people use to monitor their own task progress. - Task Strategies: learning plans and problem-solving approaches used to achieve successful performance. - Moderators: o Feedback: progress updates on work goals o Task complexity: degree to which the information and actions needed to complete a task are complicated o Goal commitment: degree to which a person accepts a go
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