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Chapter 2

Chapter 2 - Kreitner A complete chapter 2 notes taken from both lectures and book.

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Administrative Studies
ADMS 2400
Sabrina Deutsch Salamon

Social Perception & Attribution Factors Influencing Individual Behavior Kreitner Perception: The process of interpreting one’s environment. A rational process that enables us to interpret and understand our surroundings. Social Cognition: How people perceive one another (social information processing). Process underlying perception involves a 4 STAGE SEQUENCE: Stage 1: Selective Attention/Comprehension Attention: Being consciously aware of something or someone. Comes in 2 forms, information from the environment or from memory. Salient (Noticeable) Stimuli: Something that stands out from its context. Example: A driver with his gas gauge on empty, a Petro-Canada sign is more salient (noticeable) than a McDonald’s or Tim Horton’s. People have the tendency to pay more attention to negative than positive information. Stage 2: Encoding and Simplification Information is not stored in its original form. Encoding is required. Schema: Mental picture of an event of object. To make a schema meaningful, rational category labels are needed. Example: Sports car, if you picture a 2 door, small red colors vehicle a sports car. That is your schema, means you will interpret all red, small 2 door cars sports cars. Varying interpretations of what we observe occur due to four key reasons: 1) Different information in the schema 2) Moods and Emotions influence our focus of attention and evaluations of others 3) People tend to apply recently-used rational categories during encoding. a. You would more likely interpret a natural behavior exhibited as positive if you were recently thinking about positive categories and events. 4) Individual differences influence encoding. a. Pessimistic or depress individuals tend to interpret their surroundings more negatively than optimistic and happy people do. Stage 3: Storage and Retention This stage involves storage of information in long-term memory. Event Memory; Contains information about specific and general events. Going to a restraint, going to job interview, going to a food store or going to a movie. Semantic Memory; General knowledge about the world. Functions as a mental dictionary of concepts. Each concept contains a definition and associated traits. Person Memory; Contain information about a single individual or groups of people. Stage 4: Retrieval and Response People retrieve information from memory when they make judgments and decisions. Based on either: The process of drawing on, interpreting, and integrating categorical information stored in long- term memory. Retrieving a summary judgment that was already made. Example: New boss was accused but not found guilty of workplace bullying. Managerial Implications Hiring  Interviewers make hiring decisions based on their impression of how an applicant fits the perceived requirements of a job.  Implicit Cognition: Any thought or belief that is automatically activated without conscious awareness. o Many hiring decisions are made by implicit cognition  Enables people to make biased decisions without understanding that such is occurring.  To reduce implicit cognition experts recommend 2 solutions: o Train managers to understand and reduce this type of hidden bias o Use structured as opposed to unstructured interviews. Rely on multiple interviewers. Performance Appraisal  Faulty perception about what constitutes good versus poor performance can lead to inaccurate performance appraisals, which erode work motivation, commitment and loyalty.  Evaluate employee in the beginning of the review cycle to serve as a benchmark.  Objective, quantifiable (attendance records) are better than Subjective, qualitative (bias).  Individuals can be trained to more accurately rate performance. Leadership  Employees’ evaluations of leader effectiveness are influenced strongly by their schemata of good and poor leaders.  Good Leaders o Assigning specific tasks to group members o Telling others that they had done well o Setting specific goals for the group o Letting other group members make decisions o Trying to get the group to work as a team o Maintaining definite standards of performance  Poor Leaders o Telling others that they had performed poorly o Insisting on having their own way o Doing things without explaining themselves o Expressing worry over the group members’ suggestions o Frequently changing plans o Letting the details of the task become overwhelming Communication and Interpersonal Influence  Avoid these 4 behavioral tendencies that are negatively perceived when trying to influence others: o Being a pushover  Giving up on an idea rather than defending it. o Being a robot  Communication style and approach that is too rigid. Provide a specific answer that responds to the persons concerns. o Being a used-car sales associate  Too pushy, close-minded, and argumentative. o Being a charity case  Desperation and pleading Workplace Aggression, Bullying, and Antisocial Behavior  Such behaviors are based on employee’s perceptions of the work environment. o When treated unfairly. Physical and Psychological Well-Being  Negativity bias can lead to both physical and psychological problems. o Linked to asthma and depression.  Attempt to avoid the tendency of giving negative thoughts too much attention. STEREOTYPES AND OTHER PERCEPTUAL ERRORS:
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