Chapter 7 – Effective Communication
Communication: Interpersonal exchange of information and understanding.
Perceptual Model of Communication: Process in which receivers create their own meaning.
Sender: Individual, group, or organization that desires or attempts to communicate with a particular
Encoding: Communication begins when a sender encodes an idea or thought. Encoding
using words, numbers, gestures, non-verbal cues such as facial expressions, or pictures.
The Message: The output of encoding is a message.
Messages may trigger emotional or affective reactions
Messages need to match the medium used to transmit them
Selecting a Medium: People may communicate through a variety of media
o Telephone calls
o Electronic mail or email
o Voice mail
o Video conferencing
o Written memos or letters
o Photographs or drawings
o Meetings o Bulletin boards
o Computer output
o Charts or graphs
Decoding: Receiver’s version of encoding. Translating verbal, oral, or visual aspects of a
message into a form that can be interpreted.
Creating Meaning: Receivers create the meaning of a message in their head. Receivers act
to their own interpretations not the communicators.
Feedback: The receiver becomes the encoder.
Noise: Interference with the transmission and understanding of a message.
Barriers to Communication with the Communication Process
Sender Barrier: No message gets sent (Sender afraid to voice opinion)
Encoding Barrier: The message is not expressed correctly (Thinking of a word of how to express how you
feel about something)
Medium Barrier: The communication channel is blocked (You never get through to someone via the
Decoding Barrier: The recipient doesn’t understand the message (You do not understand the figure of
speech your boss tells you, due to English not being your first language)
Receive Barrier: No message gets received (Did not listen to your supervisor due to you socializing with
Feedback Barrier: The recipient doesn’t respond enough (Provide directions for someone, but they do
not listen or repeat it back to you)
Barriers to Effective Communication
Personal Barriers: Any individual attribute that hinders communication
Variable skills in communicating effectively
o Some are better communicators than others
o Communication can be enhanced with training
Variations in how information is processed and interpreted
Variations in interpersonal trust
o Instead of focusing on the message, a lack of trust is likely to cause people to be
defensive and question the accuracy of what is being said.
Stereotypes and prejudices o The use of stereotypes causes people to misperceive and recall information.
o Egos can cause political battles, turf wars, and pursuit of power, credit, and resources.
Poor Listening Skills
o Student asking the same questions asked minutes earlier
Natural tendency to evaluate other’s messages
o Natural tendency to evaluate messages from our own point of view
Inability to listen with understanding
o When facial expression and gestures are consistent with the intent of a message.
Physical Barriers: Distance between employees can interfere with effective communication. Work and
office noise are additional barriers. Quality of telephone lines or crashed computer represents physical
barriers that impact our ability to communicate with information technology.
Semantics: Study of words. We need to complete this right away. Means you and your co-
workers, just you or you, your co-workers and your boss to?
Jargon: Language or terminology that is specific to a particular profession, group, or company.
Choosing Media: Contingency Perspective
Information Richness: Information-carrying capacity of data. New understanding means Rich, little
understanding means low in richness. Overload Zone: Medium provides more information than necessary. District sales managers would fall
into the overload zone, if they communicated monthly sales reports through richer media. Conducting
face-to-face meetings or telephoning each salesperson would provide excessive information and take
more time than necessary.
Oversimplification Zone: Medium does not provide necessary information. Lay off workers via email.
Assertive Style (Assertiveness): Expressive and self-enhancing behavior, but does not take advantage of
others. WALL STREET – GREED IS GOOD SPEECH
Aggressive Style (Aggressiveness): Expressive and self-enhancing behavior, but takes unfair advantage
of others. BOILER ROOM – SPEECH TO EMPLOYEES
Non-Assertive Style (Non-Assertiveness): Timid and self-denying behavior. Provides the other person an
unfair advantage. Improve their communication competence by trying to be more assertive and less
aggressive or non-assertive. This can be done by using non-verbal or verbal behaviors listed:
Non-Verbal Behavior Patterns:
o Managers should attempt to use the non-verbal behaviors of good eye contact,
comfortable firm posture, strong, steady and audible voice, facial expressions matched
o Avoid: Glaring eye contact,