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Administrative Studies
ADMS 2400
Julia Richardson

Topic 5 Motivation- Latin word for movement (movere) is a set of energetic forces that originate both internally and externally that initiates work related effort and determines its direction, intensity, and persistence Motivation determines the: (D.I.P.) - Direction of effort determines what you’re going to do now - Intensity of effort determines how hard you work on it - Persistence of effort determines how long you will work on it Employees are more motivated than others because… Expectancy theory: describes the cognitive process that employees go through to make choices among different voluntary responses - It argues people are directed to pleasure and away from pain - Choices depend on expectancy, instrumentality, and valence - Expectancy: is the belief that high level of effort will result in high results (based on self-efficacy which is the belief that a person has the ability to execute this, considering past accomplishments, others experiences, dictated by friends who say you can do it, and emotional cues like enthusiasm or anxiety) - Instrumentality: is the belief that success will result in some outcome - Valence: is the anticipated values of the outcome associated with successful performance (positive, negative, or zero like salsry increase, demotions) - Extrinsic Motivation: motivation controlled by some contingency that depends on task performance (bonus, promos, praise) - Intrinsic Motivation: motivation felt when task performance serves as its own reward (enjoyment, personal expression) - Goal Setting Theory: views goals as the primary drivers of the intensity and persistence of effort - Claims that assigning employees specific and difficult goals will result in higher levels of performance, it gives people a measuring stick to tell them how hard they must work - A difficult goal is one that stretch’s employees to perform at their mac while staying within the boundaries of their ability - A Self set Goal is an internal goal people use to monitor their progress - Moderators help specify if goals will have positive or negative effects - Moderators are feedback, task complexity, and goal commitment - Managers are now traied to identify five to seven SMART goals to combat against people working without specific enough goals (Specfic, Measurable, Achievable, Results based and Time sensitive goals (SMART)) Equity Theory: a theory suggesting that employees create a mental ledger of the outcomes they receive for their job inputs RELATIVE to some comparison other - Ledger has inputs/contributions - Comparing to others has 3 possibilities, balanced (both you and comparison are equal), less and greater. - If less or greater there is equity distress which is internal tension that can only be alleviated by restoring balance to the ratios - This distress is the strongest predictor of counterproductive behaviors - Cognitive distortion: is a reevaluation of the inputs an employee brings after assessing equity distress Psychological empowerment is the energy rooted in the belief that tasks are for a larger purpose - Meaningfulness: captures the value of a work goal because it will affect someone, the greater the affect the greater meaningfulness and the better the job done (Managers can create a vision/purpose) - Self-determination : is the sense of choice in the initiation and continuation of work tasks, high levels of self D is a strong driver of intrinsic motivation (managers can delegate work task and trusting their employees to do it their way) - Compet
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