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Administrative Studies
ADMS 2400
Julia Richardson

Self Concept: an individuals self-beliefs and self-evaluations - Variation of self concepts include complexity (number of roles people perceive), consistency (how related each role is) and clarity (how stable your self concept is) - Some self-concept diversity helps people adapt, but too much causes internal tension and conflict Self-Enhancement: a person’s inherent motivation to have a positive concept (attractive, lucky, etc) Self-Verification: a person’s motivation to maintain and confirm their concept Self-Evaluation: consists of self-esteem (the extent to which people like themselves), self-efficacy (a persons belief that they can complete a task), locus of control (a persons belief that they have control over their personal events) Social Identity Theory: people define themselves by groups they belong to Perception: the process of receiving information and making sense of the world by selecting, organizing and thinking Selective Attention: attending to some information and ignoring other Confirmation Bias: tendency to screen out info that is contrary to beliefs Categorical Thinking: organizing people and objects into preconceived categories (ex. If you see a group with similar looking people like professors you’ll think all of them are profs), trends in gambling, patterns that are really random events Mental Models: visual or relational images in our mind that represent the external world (ex. What your lecture will look like) Stereotypes: collective beliefs held across an identifiable group, assigning a groups attributes to individuals believed to be a member - Stereotypes exist because its energy saving and helps us simply our understanding - Self-enhancement and social identity occur through categorization (a comparative process that categorizes people into distinct groups), homogenization (we believe that a person in a group is very similar to others), and differentiation (we make ourselves favorable by recognizing different characteristics). Attribution Theory - Attribution process is deciding whether an observed behaviors caused by internal (ability or motivation) or external factors (lack of resource, others, luck) - Judged by consistency (if done in the past), distinctiveness (has it been done somewhere else), consensus (do others do it) Self-Fulfilling Prophecy - Expectations about another person cause the person to act in that way - Positive OB: focuses on building positive qualities to improve success - Halo effect: general perception of someone is distorted by other errors False consensus effect: perception that we believe others is similar to us Primacy effect: first impression forms our perception Recency effect: most recent info forms our perception Contact Hypothesis: the greater the interaction with someone the less biased Ways to improve perceptions 1) More aware of existence 2) Become aware of your own biases 3) AIT test and apply Johari Window which others provide feedback 4) Developing relationships/ meaningful interactions Global Mindset - A multidimensional competency that includes the persons ability to perceive, know about, and process information across cultures - 1) Must be aware and open for other views - 2) Capacity to empathize and act across cultures - 3) Ability to process complex information - 4) Ability to understand intercultural matters by complex thinking Case Questions in book: 1) The gap between the typical Canadian advisors self –perception and the perception by is bigger since self-perception is different than other people’s perception. The self-concept include
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