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Administrative Studies
ADMS 2400
Julia Richardson

Topic 6 - Communication is the process by which info is transmitted and understood between two or more people - Frequent, timely, and accurate communication is most effective - Communication has functions 1) Coordinates us by helping us sync our work 2) Organizational learning by distributing work to employees 3) Decision making by giving us info from stakeholders/external env. 4) Changes behavior it alters people’s belief, feelings and behavior 5) Supports Employee well-being, research shows that new employees adjust better to the organization when co-workers provide wisdom on how to avoid/complete stuff and politics - Communication is not a free flowing conduit, there is noise hampering it like psychological, social and structural barriers - Communication depends on the ability to efficiently encode and decode info - Factors that influence this ability are: 1) Communication channel Proficiency: when both S and R are motivated to communicate and not awkward, slightly skilled and enjoy mode of comm 2) Similar Codebooks: Dictionaries of symbols, languages, gestures to convey a meaning allow easier relation and greater efficiency (less repetition) - 3) Shared Mental Models of the Comm Context: Communication is not a free flowing conduit, there is noise hampering it like psychological, social and structural barriers 4) Experience encoding: the greater practice means easier and effective transmission - Two types of channels: verbal and nonverbal - Nonverbal communication is less rule-bounded, some nonverbal gestures are misinterpreted while others are universally recognized (smile) - Email is a problem because of the poor medium of emotions, reduction of politeness/respect (Messages can be sent before emotions subside and there is low social presence) , poor medium for complex situations, contributes information overload - Emotional contagion is the process of sharing another’s emotions by mimicking that persons expressions/behavior - This gives feedback to the sender, allows us to receive emotional meaning, and helps us bond through social solidarity - Social acceptance refers to how the medium is approved/supported by others factors include norms, preferences, and symbolic meanings - Media Richness is the mediums capacity to carry volume and variety of information that is transmitted (face to face is the top of this because it allows us to communicate both verbally and nonverbally at the same time) - Factors that override or blur the mediums richness are: 1) Ability to multi-communicate: people can talk to multiple people and this is not efficient 2) Communication proficiency: proficiency is developed throughout life by exposure and experience (blackberry users can text faster) 3) Social Presence: social presence distractions take way from the benefits of channels with high media richness, whereas lean media have much less social presence that distracts from the actual info (when talking to CEO) - Persuasion is the use of facts, arguments, and emotional appeals to change another’s person’s beliefs and attitudes, usually for the purpose of changing the person’s behavior - Spoken communication has nonverbal communication as well - This allows people to be persuaded more when they receive emotional and logical messages along with non verbal communication (long pause, raised voice, hand gestures) - Spoken communication also sends high quality feedback allowing the sender to adjust content - People are also persuaded more under conditions of high social presence (eye to eye) -Communication barriers exist, one barrier is the imperfect perceptual process that both senders and receivers assume they send and understand each other perfectly -Language barriers also entice miscommunication -Specific language is sometimes good however like when saying restructuring over downsizing -Jargon is also used to better improve communication, however sometimes bad, as other people cannot understand who do not know the jargon -Sometimes too much information is given to process this is information overload -If it exceeds a certain information processing capacity it creates noise and produces stress and ultimately poor decisions -Buffering, omitting and summarizing as well as time management can reduce this (ex. Read executive summary not whole report) -Globalization has not only contributed language barriers ut also voice intonation (how loud, deep quick people speak) ex. Silence in japan is a sign of respect or not offending another person, where as in NA silence is the lack of communication -Nonverbal differences are also misunderstood (ex. Aboriginals looking eye to eye is not respecting elders, however in NA it is respect) -Gender difference’s also play out as men do report talk (advice, assert power) and women do rapport talk (build relationships ask for opinons) -To improve this it depends on the sender’s ability to get the message across and receives performance as an active listener -Empathizing and being sensitive helps, repeating the message and rephrasing some
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