Organizational behavior - Chapter 1
Organizational behavior – Field of study devoted to understanding, explaining, and ultimately
improving the attitudes and behaviors of individuals and groups in organizations.
Human resource management – Field of study that focuses on the applications of OB theories
and principles in organizations.
Strategic management – Field of study devoted to exploring the product choices and industry
characteristics that affect an organization’s profitability.
Characteristics of bureaucracy include: Division of labour with a high level of technical
specialization, a strict chain of command, a system of formal rules and procedure that ensure
consistency through the organization, decision making at the top of the organization.
Integrative model of Org. Behaviour (p.6)
Individual, group and organizational context
What makes a resource Valuable?
1. Rare – In short supply
2. Imitable – Hard to copy
History – Westjet Vs. Zip
Numerous small decisions – day to day decisions (coke lime)
Socially complex resources – created by people (westjet flight attendants)
Rule of one-eighth – The belief that at best one-eighth, or 12%, of organizations will actually do
what is required to build profits by putting people first.
The scientific method (p.17)
1. Theory – A collection of verbal and symbolic assertions that specify how and why
variables are related, as well as the conditions in which they should (and should not) be
2. Hypothesis – Written predictions that specify relationships between variables.
3. Data – Correlation (the statistical relationship between 2 variables)
4. Verification – Meta-analysis (combines results of studies by calculating average
correlation across studies)
Chapter 3 – Perceiving ourselves and others in organizations Self-Concept: An individual’s self-beliefs and self-evaluations
1. Complexity – the number of distinct and important roles or identities that people perceive
2. Consistency – how compatible are the person’s self-concept identities with each other
and with the person’s personality, values, and other attributes
3. Clarity- the degree to which you have a clear, confidently defined, and stable self-concept
Self-Enhancement: A person’s inherent motivation to have a positive self-concept (and to have
others perceive him/her favorably), such as being competent, attractive, lucky ethical and
Self-Verification: A person’s inherent motivation to confirm and maintain his/her existing self-
1. Self-Esteem – the extent to which people like, respect, and are satisfied with themselves;
represents a global self-evaluation
2. Self-Efficacy – refers to a person’s belief that he/she can successfully complete a task
3. Locus of Control – defined as a person’s general beliefs about the amount of control
he/she has over personal life events (internal vs. external)
Social Identity Theory: A theory that explains that people define themselves by the groups to
which they belong or have an emotional attachment.
Model of the Perceptual Process
Confirmation Bias: The tendency to screen out information that is contrary to our decisions,
beliefs, values, and assumptions, and to more readily accept confirming information.
Perceptual Organization and Interpretation
1. Categorical Thinking – organizing people and objects into preconceived categories that
are stored in our long-term memory 2. Mental Models – visual or relational images in our mind that represent the external world
3. Stereotyping – the process of assigning traits to people on the basis of their membership
in a social category; categorization, homogenization, differentiation
Attribution Process: The perceptual process of deciding weather an observed behaviour or
event is caused largely by internal or external factors
Rules of Attribution
1. Fundamental Attribution Error – the tendency to see the person rather than the situation
as the main cause of that person’s behaviour
2. Self-Serving Bias – the tendency to attribute our favourable outcomes to internal factors
and our failures to external factors
Self-Fulfilling Prophecy: The perceptual process in which our expectations about another
person cause that person to act in a way that is consistent with those expectations
1. Halo Effect – one trait affects perception of
person’s other traits 2. False-Consensus Effect – everyone sees the world the same way I do
3. Primacy Effect – forming an opinion based on first impressions
4. Recency Effect – most recent information dominates perception of others
Chapter 2 – Job performance
Job performance – Employee behaviours that contribute either positively or negatively to the
accomplishment of organizational goals. Task performance – Employee behaviours that are directly involved in the transformation of
organizational resources into the goods or services that the organization produces.
Routine task performance – Well-known or habitual responses by employees to predictable
Adaptive task performance – Thoughtful responses by an employee to unique or unusual task
Creative task performance – Ideals or physical outcomes that are both novel and useful.
Citizenship behaviour – Voluntary employee behaviours that contribute to organizational goals
by improving the context i