Chapter 2 Class 3 – Organizational Behavior
Job Performance: the value of the set of employee behaviors that contribute, either
positively or negatively to the organizational goals.
Task Performance: includes employees behaviours that are directly involved in a
transformation of organizational resources into the goods and services that the
Routine Task Performance: wellknown or habitual responses by employees to
predictable task demands
Adaptive task performance: “adaptability” thoughtful responses by an employee to
unique or unusual task demands
Creative task performance: the degree to which individuals develop ideals or physical
outcomes that are both novel and useful
Many organizations identify task performance behaviors by conducting a Job Analysis:
a process by which an organization determines requirements of specific jobs
Job Analysis’ are broken down into 3 steps:
1. A list of all the activities involved in a job is created
2. Each activity is rated by “subject matter experts” to determine importance of the
3. Highly rated activities are retained and used to define task performance.
(NOC) National Occupational Classification organizes over 30k job titles into 520
occupational group descriptions
[Citizenship Behaviour]: voluntary employee behaviors that contribute to
organizational goals by improving the context in which work takes place
[Interpersonal citizenship behavior]: going beyond the normal job expectations to
assist, support, and develop coworkers and collegues
1.Helping: Assisting coworkers who have heavy workloads, aiding them with personal
matters, and showing new employees the ropes when they are first on the job.
2.Courtesy: Sharing important information with coworkers that are relevant to them.
3.Sportsmanship: Maintaining a positive attitude with coworkers through good and bad
[Organizational Citizenship Behaviors:] 1.Voice: Spekaing up to offering constructive suggestions for change, often in reaction
to a negative event.
2. Civic Virtue: participation in company operations, at a deeperthannormal level
through voluntary meetings, readings, and keeping up with news that affects the
3. Boosterism: representing the organization in a positive way, when out in public, away
from the office and away from work.
[Counterproductive Behaviour] employee behaviours that intentionally hunder
organizational goal accomplishment
[Property deviance]: behaviors that harm the organization’s assets and possessions.
1.Sabotage: the purposeful destruction of physical equipment, organizational processes or
2. Theft: stealing company products or equipment that belongs to the organization
[Production Deviance]: Intentionally reducing organizational efficiency of work output.
1.Wasting Resources: using too many materials or too much time to do little work.
2. Substance Abuse: The abuse of alcohol or drugs before coming to work or while on the
[Political Deviance] : behaviours that intentionally disadvantage other individuals rather
than the larger organization.
1. Gossiping: casual conversations about other people in which the facts are not
confirmed as true. Such behaviors undermine the morale of work groups.
2. Incivility: communication that is rude, impolite, discourteous and lacking in good
[Personal Aggression] : hostile verbal and physical actions
1. Harassment: Unwanted physical contact or verbal remarks from a colleague
2. Abuse: Employee assault or endangerment form which physical and psychological
injuries may occur.
3 things to note about counterproductive behavior: it’s relevant to any job
people who engage in one form also engage in others it’s often times surprising to see which employees take part of counterproductive
[To be a “good performer”]
someone who doesn't participate in counterproductive behaviours
someone who engages in citizenship behaviours
someone who is good at the particular job tasks that fall within his or her job description
[Performance management] – how can organizations use job performance info to
manage employee performance?
Management by objectives: (MBO) a management philosophy that bases employee
evaluations on whether specific performance goals have been met
Behaviourally Anchored Rating Scales: (BARS) Use of examples of critical incidents
to evaluate an employees job performance behaviours directly. Ex. Scale 15
360 degree feedback: A performance evaluation system that uses ratings provided by
collecting info from supervisors coworkers, subordinates, customers and the em