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4 Communication.docx

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Administrative Studies
ADMS 2400
Indira Somwaru

4 Communication Communication - The exchange of information between a sender and a receiver, and the inference (perception) of meaning between individuals involved. o sender: encodes message o receiver: sends feedback through a medium o receiver: decodes message and decides if feedback is needed - Noise: interference with the transmission and understanding of a message Barriers to effective communication - It interferes with the accurate transmission and reception of a message - Three key barriers to effective communication: o Personal barriers: any individual attribute that hinders communication o Physical barriers: distance between employees can interfere with effective communication o Semantic barriers: the study of words. Jargon is often used when communication meaning that is specific to a particular profession, group, or company. Media richness Choosing media: a contingency perspective - Employees can reduce information overload and improve communication effectiveness through their choice of communication media. Information richness - The potential information-carrying capacity data. If it provides substantial understanding, it is considered rich, if it provides little understanding, it would be low in richness - Information richness is based on four factors o Feedback (ranging from fast to very slow) o Channel (ranging from the combined visual and audio characteristics of a video conference to the limited visual aspect of a computer report) o Type of communication (ranging from personal to impersonal) o Language source (ranging from the natural body language and speech) - Face to face is considered the best one Contingency Recommendations - Zone of effective communication o face to face o personal static media (memos, letters, fax, personal email, personal messaging service) o impersonal static media (newsletter, bulletin board, computer report, financial statements, general email) Interpersonal Communication - five factors that are under your control o assertive style: expressive and self-enhancing behaviour, but does not take advantage of others o Aggressive style: expressive and self-enhancing behaviour, but takes unfair advantages of others. o Non-assertive style: timid and self-denying behaviour. Not effective because it gives other persons unfair advantages o Non-verbal communication: messages sent or received through other means other than spoken words e.g. body movements and gestures, touch, facial expressions, and eye contact Listening - Actively decoding and interpreting verbal messages - Five dominant listening styles: o Appreciative: listen in a relaxed manner, preferring to listen for pleasure, entertainment, or inspiration o Empathetic: interpret messages by focussing on the emotions and body language being displayed by the speaker; as well as presentation media. o Comprehensive : make sense of a message by first organizing specific thoughts and actions and then integrating this information by focusing on relationships among ideas o Discerning: attempts to understand the main message and determine important points. Like taking notes o Evaluative: listen analytically and continually formulate arguments and challenges to what is being said - Listening can be improved by three fundamental recommendations: o Attend closely to what’s being said, not to what you want to say next o Allow others to finish speaking before takin
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