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Chapter 1

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Administrative Studies
ADMS 2511
Cristobal Sanchez- Rodriguez

Chapter 1 Notes: A portal is a web based personalized gateway to a great deal of relevant information from various information systems and the Internet like Yahoo and Microsoft (MSN) - Electronic commerce is the buying and selling of products, services or information via computer networks including the internet Google built a platform called Googolplex - a platform consists of the hardware software and communications components that organizations use to process and manage information - Consists of Hardware: servers is a computer that provides access to various services available on a network such as data, web pages and so on - Software - Communications - Personalized search generates and organizes search results based on an analysis of the types of results a user has clicked on in past searches - Desktop search allows users to search the contents of their own hard drives and Vertical Search tailors searches to specific internet sites - The Google case illustrates how an organization can use information technologies to survive and thrive in today’s environment - to succeed in today’s environment it is often necessary to change business model and strategies - IT can enable organizations to survive and thrive in the face of relentless business pressures - IT may require a large investment over a long period of time - Organizations can leverage their platforms to develop new we based applications, products, and services as well as to provide superb customer service Management Information Systems: deal with the planning or and the development, management and use of information technology tools to help people perform tasks related to information processing and management Information Technology (IT): relates to any computer based tool that people use to work with information and to support the information and information processing needs of an organization Information Systems Concepts and Definitions - one primary goal of information systems is to economically process data into information and knowledge - Data Items: elementary description of things, events, activities and transactions that are recorded, classified and stored but which are not organized to convey any specific meaning. For ex can be numbers, letters, figures, sounds or images, Example of data items are a students grade in a class and the number of hours an employee worked in a certain week - Information: refers to data that has been organized so that they have meaning and value to the recipient. For example a grade point average is data, but a students name with his or her GPA is information. Recipient interprets the meaning and draws conclusions and implications from the information - Knowledge: consists of data and information that has been organized and processed to convey understanding, experience, accumulated learning and expertise as applied to a current business problem Information Technology Architecture - organizations IT architecture is a high level map or plan of the information assets in an organization - a guide for current operations and a blueprint for future direction - IT architecture integrates the entire organizations business needs for information, as well as the infracstructure and all applications - IT architecture is analogous to the architecture of a house - An architectural plan describes how the house is to be constructed iincluding how the various components of the house, such as plumbing, and electrical systems are to be integrated - Shows all aspects of information technology in an organization Information Technology Infrastructure (diagram page 8) - consists of physical facilities, IT compenents, IT services and IT personel that support the entire organization - IT components are the hardware, software and communications technologies (ex. wireless) that provide the foundation for all of an organizations information systems - As move up the pyramid see that the IT personnel use IT compenents to produce IT services which include data management, systems development and security management - A firms platform is only its IT compoenets therefore platform is part of an IT infrastructure The Global, Web Based Platform - best represented by Internet and functionality of the World Wide Web - Platform lets people connect, compute, communicate, collaborate and compete everywhere and anywhere, anytime, to access limitless information, services and to exchange knowledge and to produce and sell goods and services - This platform enables globalization - Globalization: integration and increasing interdependence, across geographic boundaries of economic, social, cultural and ecological facets of life The Three Stages of Globalization - Thomas Friedman’s book The world is flat argues that the world is flat in the sense that the global competitive playing field is being leveled - Identifies three eras of globalization - First era, lasted from 1492, 1800, where the force behind globalization was how much muscle, horse power wind power or steam power a country had and could deploy. - Second Era, 1800 – 2000, force behind globalization was multinational companies, which had their headquarters in one country but operated in two or more countries, first half it was driven by falling transportation costs due to development of steam engines and the railroads and the second half was driven by falling telecommunication costs, telephones, computers, telegraph, internet, world wide web - Third Era, around the year 200, driven by convergence of 10 forces that Friedman calls “flatteners”. In this era, we are witnessing the emergence of a global, web based platform - Distinctive focus of globalization, era 1 was on countries, era 2 was on companies and era 3 is on groups and individuals Friedman’s 10 Flatteners - notes that 10 forces or flatteners contributed to the emeregence of era3 and the flat world 1. Fall of the Berlin Wall: nov 9 1989, the subsequent collapse of the soviet union and the communist governments of Eastern Europe enabled these countries to move toward free market economies and away from totalitarian, centrally planned economies. Many of these countries eventually joined the European Union which led people to begin thinking about the world as a single market or single community 2. Netscape goes public: aug 9, 1995, was the first user friendly browsers, popularized the internet and the web by making them easy to navigate 3. development of work flow software: enables computer applications to interoperate or communicate and work with one another without human intervention 4. uploading: means that anyone can create and upload content to the web. Uploading takes the form of open soft source software (also called community developed software) blogging and wikis. Uploading led to shift from a static, passive approach to media, to an active, participatory approach, entire communities of people now collaborate on web content 5. outsourcing: companies outsource so they can lower costs and concentrate on their core competencies 6. off shoring: occurs when company moves an entire operation or certain tasks to another country for example moving an entire plant. Decide to offshore because of cheaper labor, lower taxes, fewer benefits etc. companies all choose to offshore so that they can serve a foreign market without having to deal with trade barriers 7. supply chaining: occurs, when
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