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Chapter 1

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Administrative Studies
ADMS 2511
Cristobal Sanchez- Rodriguez

Chapter One: The Modern Organization in the Global, Web-Based Environment  For success it is often necessary to change business models and strategies to respond to changes  IT enables organizations to survive and thrive in the face of relentless business pressures  IT may require a large investment over a long period of time  Organizations can use their platforms to develop new web-based application, products, and services, as well as to provide superb customer service Management Information Systems (MIS) (Information Systems-IS): deal with the planning for-and the development, management, and use of-information technology tools to help people perform all of the tasks related to information processing and management. (Can be referred to as: Info Service Depart, Info Sys Depart and Info Tech Depart. Information Technology (IT): relates to any computer-based tool that people use to work with information and to support the information and information-processing needs of an organization. 1.1 The Importance of Planning for IT  New System proposals may be organized or grouped into application portfolios  These would be the applications that have to be added or modified if they already exist IT Planning Organizational Strategic Plan: firm’s overall objective, goals from that mission, broad steps to reach goals. IT architecture delineates the way an organization’s information resources should be used to accomplish its mission. (Technical and managerial aspects) IT Strategic Plan: a set of long-range goals that describe the IT infrastructure and identify the major IT initiatives needed to achieve the organization’s goals. Must meet 3 objectives: 1. It must align with the organizations strategic plan 2. It must provide for an It architecture that enables users, applications, and databases to be seamlessly networked and integrated 3. It must efficiently allocate IS development resources among competing projects so the projects can be completed on time and within budget and have the required functionality SEE FIGURE 1.1 IT steering committee (managers and staff repping diff organizational units): establish IT priorities and ensure that the MIS function is meeting the enterprise’s needs. Link corporate strategy to IT strategy. Approve allocation of resources for MIS function, establish performance measure for MIS and ensure they are met. Ensure employees get resources to do their job. IS operational Plan: consists of clear set of projects that the IS department and functional area managers will execute to support the IT strategic plan. Typically contains:  Mission: mission of the IS function  IS environment: a summary of the info needs of the functional areas and organization as whole  Objectives of the IS function: best current estimates of the goals  Constraints on the IS function: Tech, financial, personnel, and other resource limitations  The application portfolio: prioritized inventory of present applications and a detailed plan of projects to be developed or continued during the current year  Resource allocation and project management: list of whose doing what, how and when. 1.2 Business Processes and Business Process Management Business Process: a collection of related activities that produce a product or a service of value to the organization, its business partners, and/or its customers. (Input and Outputs ad activities can be measured)  Some cross functional areas in an organization some involve only one  Can lead to competitive advantage if they allow innovation or better execution than competitors  Business process excellence is the underlying basis for all significant measures of competitive performance. For example consider these measures: o Customer Satisfaction: fill needs, wants, and desires o Cost Reduction: and still being more efficient o Cycle and fulfilment time: better manufacturing and product management o Quality: improving design, development, and production processes o Product differentiation: effective marketing and innovative processes o Productivity: improving each individual’s work processes  (BRP) Business process reengineering: an approach that improves the efficiency and effectiveness of an organization’s business processes. Key examine business process from a “clean sheet” perspective and then determine how to best reconstruct those processes to improve business functions.  Business Process Management (BPM) a management technique that includes methods and tools to support the design, analysis, implementation, management, and optimization of business processes o Improve profitability o Improve organizational flexibility o Cost benefits o Increase customer satisfaction 1.3 Information Systems: Concepts and Definitions Data, Information, and Knowledge Information systems primary goal is to convert data into information and knowledge Data items: refer to an elementary description of things, events, activities, and transactions that are recorded, classified, and stored but not organized to convey any specific meaning. (Numbers, letters, figures, images, sounds, # hours at work of employee) Information: refers to data that have been organized so that they have meaning and value to the recipient. (GPA – data, GPA and name – info) Knowledge: consists of data/and or information that have been organized and processed to convey understanding, experience, accumulated learning, and expertise as they apply to a current business problem. (GPA over 3.0 most success in management programs) Information Technology Architecture An organization’s information technology (IT) architecture is a high-level map or plan of the information assets in an organization.  Guide current operations and blueprint for future directions  Analogous to architecture of a house, describes how the house is to be constructed, including plumbing and electrical systems are to be integrates  Shows how all aspects of information technology fit together Information Technology Infrastructure An organization’s information technology (IT) infrastructure consists of the physical facilities, IT components, IT services, and IT personnel that support the entire organization  IT components: computer hardware, software, comm. Tech providing foundation of IS  IT personnel: use IT components to produce IT services, which include data management, systems development, and security concerns 1.4 The Global, Web-Based Platform  Web enables people to connect, compute, communicate, collaborate, and compete everywhere and anywhere, anytime and all the time; access limitless info, services, and entertainment; exchange knowledge and produce and sell goods and services 
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